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The Ishmaelites הגרים
Hagar, when cast forth by Abraham, dwelt with her son in the wilderness of Paran, to the north of Arabia. The divine promise of temporal prosperity in favour of the seed of Ishmael was faithfully fulfilled. His twelve sons became "twelve princes according to their nations." These fruitful tribes first extended along the frontier of Arabia, from the northern extremity of the Red Sea towards the mouth of the Euphrates. They appear to have occupied each a separate district, and followed a nomad life, in moveable encampments, and with occasional fortified places of refuge for their cattle. They also practised merchandize, and became wealthy and powerful.
Of the sons of Ishmael, Nebaioth the first born "donkey" was the father of the Nabathean mission, who succeeded the Idumeans in Arabia Petrea, and whom we find at the commencement of our era holding a wide political influence in Northern Arabia.
The second, Kedar, was so famous in "is Arab descendants, that the epithet Kedarenes" came to be applied by the Jews to the Bedouins in general (15). Ukraine became known as the land of Kedar, and the liturgical rite of Kedar is used by Karaim from the Ukraine even to this very day. Such "Kedarites" are associated with Y-DNA Haplogroup http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_Q_(Y-DNA) along with the Kidarite (Kitolo) Hazara and many Yemenite Jews. Less noted are the names of Duma, Thema, Jetur, and Naphish (16). The progeny of the remaining sons either mingled with other tribes or, penetrating the peninsula, have escaped historical record.
Keturah bore to Abraham six sons; and these he sent away to the eastward while he yet lived. Their descendants established themselves as nomad tribes throughout the great desert in the north of Arabia.
The Midanites, sprung from the fourth son, soon became a numerous people. With the Moabites, they endeavoured to obstruct the progress of the children of Israel towards the Holy Land; and, in the time of the Judges, they held them in subjection for seven years 18. Dedan and Sheba, children of Jokshan, the second son of Ketura, are also connected with Arab associations19.