"Jacob I have Loved but Esau I have hated."
According to all midrashim, Esau is a very significant character in world history. Inasmuch as humble Jacob is considered to be the progenitor of the Children of Israel, it is Esau who is regarded as the arrogant forefather of the Maithraists (e.g. Rome, the Roman Empire and Christendom). The struggle between the Mithraists and the Jews stemming from the land of Judah alternated, according to history, between cooperation and outright hate and warfare. The argument is proposed that Esau was born with red coloring in his hair and body, and the ancient rabbis have connected this with the red banner and standard favored by Rome's legions.
After Jacob is given Isaac's blessing as leader, Esau is given the blessing that he shall "live by the sword". But those who follow Esau will die by the sword. Some see this as another sign of Rome, famous for her unique sword made of steel - the gladius - that smashed its way to world hegemony and on the way massacred the descendants of Jacob/Israel.
Another explanation is that Esau is described by the Bible as ancestor of the Edomites, the Hebrews' neighbors (and on many occasions, enemies) to the south. King Herod, whom many Jews considered as a usurper and destroyed of the legitimate Hasmonean dynasty, was an Edomite (though nominally converted to Judaism). And since Herod was a collaborator with the Roman rule, the ancestor of the Roman's collaborator became identified with the Romans themselves.
Later, when the Roman Empire turned Christian, arrogant Esau became perforce identified with arrogant Christianity and arrogant Christians. Although Christians have never made such a claim, the idea was reinforced by the rise of Islam, whose followers outspokenly claimed Ishmael as their ancestor. Furthermore, Esau's religious character according to the Kabbalah is described as YESOD SHEBE MALCHUT which applies to the Imperial Mithraism of the Roman and Byzantine and Parthian and Armenian and Ethiopian Empires very well. This created for Jews a neat symmetrical view of history, with each of the competing monotheistic religions identified with a brother of a Jewish Patriarch (Ismael, brother of Isaac, and Esau, brother of Jacob).
Jews living in a Christian environment tended to attribute to Esau the cultural characteristic of their neighbors. For example, in Yiddish folksongs Esau is often depicted as an immoderate consumer of alcoholic drinks, which has no Biblical basis but is could have been drawn from a widespread practice in Slavic societies (which most Jews in the same countries conspicuously did not participate, at least until well into the Twentieth Century).
The Edomites or Idumeans, descendants of Esau, early peopled the country of Arabia Petrea. Their capital was Mount Seir, whence they expelled the aboriginal Horites, and succeeded to their possessions.
Two grandsons of Esau were Teman and Amalek.
The Amalekites refers to Gentile Gnosticism. The Amalekites had at least a partial seat at Petra and the country about the head of the Red Sea till near the year 700 B.C., when they were driven thence probably in a southern direction.
H*man was an Amalekite.
Hitler was an Amalekite.
Thanks to the Amalekites, Esau's role has sometimes been expanded to being identified with all non-Jews, whatever their religion in the context of antisemitism. The Talmudic saying "It is well-known that Esau hates Jacob" (Hebrew: הלכה בידוע שעשיו שונא ליעקב) is often quoted, up to the present, by nationalist and isolationist Jewish groups asserting that Jew-hatred is an endemic and incurable phenomenon of some non-Jewish societies, and that all efforts at reconciliation with non-Jews, achieving equality in a non-Jewish environment or assimilation are futile and doomed to failure.
Mahomedan legend speaks of Malekite tribes as the earliest inhabitants both of Medina and Mecca, and of the country lying to the south of Syria.
The Malekite Lesser Hyksos Shemau are associated with the Lesser Hyksos Aamu invasion of Avaris in Egypt. The Greater Hyksos Shemau were supposed to have founded the Greek empire after being evicted by the Egyptians () while the Trojan refugees under Aeneas founded Rome.