Sanhedrin 58b

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Sanhedrin 58a

that only by referring to collateral relations[1] can his father and his mother bear similar interpretations.[2] But R. Akiba prefers to interpret his father as his father's wife, who is designated as the nakedness of his father, rather than his father's sister, who, is designated as his father's kin, not his father's nakedness.[3]
אביו דומיא דאמו ואמו דומיא דאביו לא משכחת לה אלא באחווה ורבי עקיבא מוטב לאוקמיה באשת אביו דאיקרי ערות אביו לאפוקי אחות אביו דשאר אביו איקרי ערות אביו לא איקרי
Come and hear: And Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to wife.[4] Does it not [presumably] mean his father's sister on her mother's side [too]?[5] — No. It means his father's paternal sister.[6]
ת"ש (שמות ו) ויקח עמרם את יוכבד דודתו מאי לאו דודתו מן האם לא דודתו מן האב
Come and hear: And yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not of my mother.[7] Does not this prove that his mother's daughter is forbidden?[8] — Now, is this logical: was she then his sister? She was his brother's daughter, and therefore, whether by his father or mother,[9] permitted to him. But Abram declared to him [i.e., Abimelech] thus: I am fraternally related to her, [i.e., she is my brother's daughter] on my father's side [i.e., my brother by my father] but not on my mother's side.[10]
ת"ש (בראשית כ) וגם אמנה אחותי בת אבי היא אך לא בת אמי מכלל דבת האם אסורה ותסברא אחותו הואי בת אחיו הואי וכיון דהכי הוא לא שנא מן האב ולא שנא מן האם שריא אלא התם הכי קאמר ליה קורבא דאחות אית לי בהדה מאבא ולא מאמא
Come and hear! Why did not Adam marry his daughter?[11] So that Cain should marry his sister, as it is written, For I said, the world shall be built up by grace.[12] But otherwise, she would have been forbidden [to Cain]?[13] — Once however that it was permitted, it remained so.
ת"ש מפני מה לא נשא אדם את בתו כדי שישא קין את אחותו שנאמר (תהילים פט) כי אמרתי עולם חסד יבנה הא לאו הכי אסירא כיון דאשתרי אשתרי
R. Huna said: A heathen may marry his daughter. But should you ask, If so, why did not Adam marry his daughter? — In order that Cain might marry his sister, that the world might be built up by grace. Others give this version: R. Huna said: A heathen may not marry his daughter; the proof being that Adam did not marry his daughter. But that proof is fallacious: The reason was that Cain should marry his sister, so that the world should be built up by [Adam's] grace.
אמר רב הונא <כותי> {נכרי} מותר בבתו וא"ת מפני מה לא נשא אדם את בתו כדי שישא קין את אחותו משום עולם חסד יבנה ואיכא דאמרי אמר רב הונא <כותי> {נכרי} אסור בבתו תדע שלא נשא אדם את בתו ולא היא התם היינו טעמא כדי שישא קין את אחותו משום דעולם חסד יבנה
R. Hisda said: A heathen slave [owned by a Jew] may marry his daughter and his mother, for he has lost the status of a heathen, but has not yet attained that of a Jew.[14] When R. Dimi came,[15] he said in the name of R. Eleazar in the name of R. Hanina: A heathen who allotted a bondwoman to his slave [for concubinage] and then took her for himself is executed on her account. From when [is she regarded as the particular concubine of that slave]? — R. Nahman said: When she is referred to as so and so's mistress.[16] When is she free again [to others]? — R. Huna said: From the time that she goes bareheaded in the streets.[17]
אמר רב חסדא עבד מותר באמו ומותר בבתו יצא מכלל <כותי> {נכרי} ולכלל ישראל לא בא כי אתא רב דימי אמר ר' אלעזר אמר ר' חנינא בן נח שייחד שפחה לעבדו ובא עליה נהרג עליה מאימת אמר רב נחמן מדקראו לה רביתא דפלניא מאימת התרתה אמר רב הונא משפרעה ראשה בשוק
R. Eleazar said in R. Hanina's name: If a heathen had an unnatural connection with his wife, he incurs guilt; for it is written, and he shall cleave, which excludes unnatural intercourse.[18] Raba objected: Is there anything for which a Jew is not punishable and a heathen is?[19] But Raba said thus: A heathen who violates his neighbour's wife unnaturally is free from punishment — Why so? — [Scripture saith:] To his wife, but not to his neighbour's; and he shall cleave, which excludes unnatural intercourse.[20]
א"ר אלעזר א"ר חנינא בן נח שבא על אשתו שלא כדרכה חייב שנאמר (בראשית ב) ודבק ולא שלא כדרכה אמר רבא מי איכא מידי דישראל לא מיחייב <וכותי> {ונכרי} מיחייב אלא אמר רבא בן נח שבא על אשת חבירו שלא כדרכה פטור מאי טעמא באשתו ולא באשת חבירו ודבק ולא שלא כדרכה
R. Hanina said: If a heathen smites a Jew, he is worthy of death,[21] for it is written, And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he slew the Egyptian.[22] R. Hanina also said: He who smites an Israelite on the jaw, is as though he had thus assaulted the Divine Presence; for it is written, one who smiteth[23] man [i.e. an Israelite] attacketh[24] the Holy One.[25]
א"ר חנינא <עובד כוכבים> {נכרי} שהכה את ישראל חייב מיתה שנאמר (שמות ב) ויפן כה וכה וירא כי אין איש [ויך את המצרי] וגו' וא"ר חנינא הסוטר לועו של ישראל כאילו סוטר לועו של שכינה שנאמר (משלי כ) מוקש אדם ילע קודש:
(Mnemonic: lifts, his servant, Sabbath.)[26] Resh Lakish said: He who lifts his hand against his neighbour, even if he did not smite him, is called a wicked man as it is written, And he said unto the wicked man, Wherefore wouldst thou smite thy fellow?[27] 'Wherefore hast thou smiteth is not said, but wherefore wouldst thou smite, shewing that though he had not smitten him yet, he was termed a wicked man. Ze'iri said in R. Hanina's name: He is called a sinner, for it is written, But if not, I will take it by force;[28] and it is further written, Wherefore the sin of the young men was very great before the Lord.[29] R. Huna said: His hand should be cut off, as it is written, Let the uplifted arm be broken.[30] R. Huna had the hand cut off [of one who was accustomed to strike other people].[31] R. Eleazar said: The only thing to be done with him is to bury him, as it is written, And a man of [uplifted] arm, for him is the earth.[32] R. Eleazar also said: The earth was given only to the strong.[33] as it is said, But as for the mighty man, for him is the earth.[34] Resh Lakish said also: What is the meaning of the verse, He that serveth his land shall be satisfied with bread?[35] If one enslaves himself to his land [continually toiling thereon] he shall be satisfied with bread: if not, he shall not be satisfied with bread. Resh Lakish also said: A heathen who keeps a day of rest, deserves death, for it is written, And a day and a night they shall not rest,[36] and a master has said: Their prohibition is their death sentence.[37] Rabina said: Even if he rested on a Monday. Now why is this not included in the seven Noachian laws? — Only negative injunctions are enumerated, not positive ones.[38]
מגביה עבדו שבת סימן: אמר ריש לקיש המגביה ידו על חבירו אע"פ שלא הכהו נקרא רשע שנאמר (שמות ב) ויאמר לרשע למה תכה רעך למה הכית לא נאמר אלא למה תכה אף על פי שלא הכהו נקרא רשע <אמר> זעירי א"ר חנינא נקרא חוטא שנאמר (שמואל א ב) ואם לא לקחתי בחזקה וכתיב (שמואל א ב) ותהי חטאת הנערים גדולה מאד רב הונא אמר תיקצץ ידו שנאמר (איוב לא) וזרוע רמה תשבר רב הונא קץ ידא ר"א אומר אין לו תקנה אלא קבורה שנאמר (איוב כב) ואיש זרוע לו הארץ וא"ר אלעזר לא נתנה קרקע אלא לבעלי זרועות שנאמר ואיש זרוע לו הארץ ואר"ל מאי דכתיב (משלי יב) עובד אדמתו ישבע לחם אם עושה אדם עצמו כעבד לאדמה ישבע לחם ואם לאו לא ישבע לחם ואר"ל <עובד כוכבים> {גוי} ששבת חייב מיתה שנא' (בראשית ח) ויום ולילה לא ישבותו ואמר מר אזהרה שלהן זו היא מיתתן אמר רבינא אפילו שני בשבת וליחשבה גבי ז' מצות כי קא חשיב שב ואל תעשה קום עשה לא קא חשיב

See Also


  1. I.e., to the father's sister or mother's sister.
  2. For they cannot both be literal, since his father is prohibited by 'and he shall cleave'; nor can they both refer to relationship by marriage, since his mother is a blood relation.
  3. Lev. XVIII, 8: The nakedness of thy father's wife thou shalt not uncover it is thy father's nakedness; Lev. XVIII, 12: Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of my father's sister: she is thy father's near kinswoman. Since his father's wife is designated his father's nakedness she forms part and parcel of himself, as it were, in contradistinction to his father's sister, who by being described as his father's kin, is recognised as a separate entity. Consequently, in the interests of literalness 'his father's wife' is a more preferable interpretation.
  4. Ex. VI, 20.
  5. This refutes R. Eliezer's ruling. [Belonging to the pre-Sinaitic era, the Patriarchs were accounted Noachians.]
  6. Only this relation was permitted in the pre-Sinaitic era. But his father's maternal sister would have been forbidden.
  7. Gen. XX, 12. Spoken by Abraham about Sarah.
  8. This contradicts R. Akiba's ruling. For since he interprets the verse as referring us his father's wife and his mother, who are forbidden on pain of death, he evidently regards those who are forbidden under penalty of extinction as permissible, and his mother's daughter is only thus forbidden, but not on pain of death.
  9. This refers to his brother.
  10. Not that she would have been forbidden in that case, but this was stated merely for the sake of exactness.
  11. [Or why could not Adam have married his daughter? Eve's offence should have been followed by her death, and as to Adam, he could have found a help-meet in his daughter (Tosaf.)]
  12. Ps. LXXXIX, 2. It was an act of grace on Adam's part to deny himself his sister; or, as Rashi states, God commanded Adam to deal graciously with Cain, so that Cain, by marrying her, should build up the world.
  13. This proves that one's paternal sister was forbidden to the sons of Noah.
  14. Heathen slaves owned by Jews occupied an intermediate position in respect to Judaism. The males were circumcised, and permitted to eat of the Passover sacrifice. Like women, they were bound to observe all negative commandments and all positive ones not limited to certain times. We see here that this applied to marriage too. Their status was neither that of a heathen nor of an Israelite proper. As they were no longer heathens, they stood in no relationship to their former relations. But as they were not Jews either, there was no need to forbid them their former maternal relations through fear that it would be said that they had left a higher sanctity for a lower one.
  15. V. supra p. 390, n. 1.
  16. Lit., 'girl'.
  17. Even non-Jewish married women did not walk bareheaded in the streets, and this bondwoman, though not legally married, would do likewise. If she appeared bareheaded, it was a sign that her connection with the slave to whom she had been allotted was now broken.
  18. His wife derives no pleasure from this, and hence there is no cleaving.
  19. A variant reading of this passage is: Is there anything permitted to a Jew which is forbidden to a heathen. Unnatural connection is permitted to a Jew.
  20. By taking the two in conjunction, the latter as illustrating the former, we learn that the guilt of violating the injunction 'to his wife but not to his neighbour's wife' is incurred only for natural, but not unnatural intercourse.
  21. [By the Hand of God, V. Yad, Melakim. I, 6].
  22. Ex. II, 12. Thus Moses slew the Egyptian for striking an Israelite, proving that he had merited it.
  23. Deriving mokesh from, nakosh.
  24. Yala' [H] is here derived from loa' [H] the jaw: lit., 'smiteth the jaw'.
  25. Prov. XX, 25.
  26. V. 387 n. 8.
  27. Ex. II, 13.
  28. I Sam. II, 16. This refers to the sons of Eli, who demanded their portion of the sacrifices before it was due, threatening physical violence if their demands were not satisfied.
  29. Ibid. 16.
  30. Job XXXVIII, 15. The editions give the reference as Job XXXI, but this is an error caused by a slightly similar passage in XXXI, 22.
  31. This is not actually permitted in the Torah. Weiss (Dor, II. 14) holds that R. Huna was influenced by Persian practice in this.
  32. I.e., he is to be buried, homiletical rendering of Job XXII, 8.
  33. I.e., only a strong man should wish to possess land, as there are always quarrels in connection therewith.
  34. Ibid.
  35. Prov. XII, 11
  36. Gen. VIII, 22. 'They' is here made to apply to men, and 'shall not' is taken to mean 'may not'.
  37. Eisenstein, J. E., V. p. 623. suggests that this may have been directed against the Christian Jews, who disregarded the Mosaic law yet observed the Sabbath, and quotes Maimonides who advances the following reason: 'The principle is, one is not permitted to make innovations in religion or to create new commandments. He has the privilege to become a true proselyte by accepting the whole law.' (Yad. Melakim, X, 9.) He also points out that 'Deserves death' expresses strong indignation, and is not to be taken literally; [cf. the recurring phrase. 'He who transgresses the words of the Sages deserves death.' Ber. 6b.]
  38. The seven Noachian laws deal with things which a heathen must abstain from doing. But when we say that a heathen must not observe a day of rest, we bid him to do a positive action, viz., work.