- 1 Introduction
- 2 Religious Background
- 3 Hanifism and Hagarism merge as Islam
- 3.1 The Tyranny of Khosrau II
- 3.2 Lakhmidia's Last Arab King in Al-Hira
- 3.2.1 The Quraysh (Association)
- 3.2.2 613 Romans, Eclipse, Occultation
- 3.2.3 616 Copts & Syriacs
- 3.2.4 First Hijra 617
- 3.2.5 Qiblah
- 3.2.6 618 Egypt
- 3.2.7 618 Bostanai
- 3.2.8 Erruption of the Saracens
- 3.2.9 622 Heraclius Liberates Cappadocia
- 3.2.10 Monoenergism vs Gnostic Acephali
- 3.2.11 Gabriel's (or Ariel's) visit
- 3.2.12 Dhū-Qār 624
- 3.2.13 626 Yathrib
- 3.2.14 626-628 Oppressing Dyoenergism
- 3.2.15 628 Bostanai
- 3.2.16 Siroe/Kavad II (Conquest of Makah)
- 3.2.17 7AH Heraclius & Nabi Dihyah Wahi ibn Khalifah al-Kalbi
- 3.2.18 The Critical Years of 628-630
- 3.2.19 The Pasigs vs Pahlavi Civil War
- 3.3 632 ʿAlī's Term
- 3.3.1 Abu Bakr and the Proto-Karaites
- 3.3.2 The Mawali
- 3.3.3 632 Rivalry: Arabs vs Pahlavi Mawali
- 3.3.4 634 Umar
- 188.8.131.52 Calendar
- 184.108.40.206 Censorship
- 220.127.116.11 634 Tayyaye d'Mhmt
- 18.104.22.168 Sophronius
- 22.214.171.124 634 Carthage Doctrina Yacobi
- 126.96.36.199 635 Ctesiphon
- 188.8.131.52 636 Peroz
- 184.108.40.206 636 Fragment
- 220.127.116.11 637 Jerusalem
- 18.104.22.168 The Temple Mount Masjid
- 22.214.171.124 638
- 126.96.36.199 639 Egypt
- 188.8.131.52 644 Emir Umayr
- 184.108.40.206 644 Bostanai & Umar
- 3.3.5 644 Uthman
- 3.3.6 656 The First Fitna
- 3.4 661 Muawiya's Primacy
- 3.5 680 Yazid I
- 3.6 683 Muawiya II
- 3.7 684 Marwan
- 3.8 685 Abdul Malik
- 3.9 705 Al-Walid I
- 3.10 715 Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik
- 3.11 717 Umar II
- 3.12 747 Pavlikeni
- 3.13 750 The Umayyad Retreat
- 4 Questions
- 5 833 Ibn Hisham's Islamic narrative
This project proposes that Islam emerged from the Abbasids re-writing of the history of an attempt by Umayyads to make a proto-Karaite type sense out of Judeo-Gnostic writings in order to unite all Arabs under one religion.
Below is a chronology comprised of possibly relevant events which took place in the two centuries preceeding the Abbasids' work to establish the Islamic religion in the 9th century.
The Gnostic Baptists were a proto-Muslim group (very much like the Old-Paulicians of Thrace) and whose Monophysite Acephali religious materials were eventually redacted and even re-written for interpretation by proto-Karaites under the rise of Arabic hegemony to form parts of the Quran.
Gnostic Baptists have existed in "Arabia Haeresium Ferax" since the 1st century AD. Arabic is one of the tongues used in Acts 2:11 and Gamaliel's student St Paul of Tarsus himself (complemented by Jacob Emden) went to preach among the disciples of John the Baptist in the Arabah. According to the of Rabban Harvey Falk these would have been Messianic Noahite students of Kabbalah. He suggests that the Jewish teachers of such Noahites would have been called Av or "Father" in English.
The earliest reference to these Baptists as a distinct sect from Christians is by the word Sobiai (Sabians) from whom the Elcesaite Jews and subsequent Antisemitic Manicheans emerged. Antisemitic Mandeans are also sometimes considered to be related.
Christians in the Middle East used to refer to all such Gnostics by the derogatory Hebraic-Syriac-Aramaic term "Haniph" and it is possible to refer to their various sects of Gnosticism as "Hanifisms". The exonym was even adopted in the form "Banu Hanifa" meaning Children of Hanifa (where Hanifa refers to Abraham) by the Arabic-speaking Gnostic Baptists of Maslama bin Habib who seem to have somehow been unaware of its pejorative intent.
These Hanifian or Hanifite Sabians seem to have lived by rivers all across the Fertile Crescent. They are sometimes referred to as Abrahamists or even Hanafite Christians. They were the original so-called "Old Paulicians" from whom derived the ancient Johannite tradition of Hormuz (Ormus) and the wooden Mahomet icon venerated by the Templars.
Their practices were recorded as being very similar to Older Orthodox Christian sects. In particular they practiced a Eucharist and recited the Psaltyr standing, bowing and prostrating during the Liturgical Office Hours of Noon (Zohar), Vespers (Asr), Compline (Maghrib), Night Office (Isha) and Matins (Fajr). They also observed the Nativity Fast of Advent (Ramadan) and pilgrimages in the last week of Lent. Moreover, the first part of the Shahada "La ilaha il Allah" is attributed to them.
Falling under the Gnostic cultural sphere of influence centred on Isfahan, their word for Jesus is Ieso and their word for John is Yahia. These two Gnostic names are the best evidence that Islam did not have simple Arabic origins.
Notable Gnostic Baptists
Waraqah ibn Nawfal: became an Adoptionist.
Uthman ibn al-Huwayrith: became an Adoptionist.
Ubayd-Allah ibn Jahsh: became an Adoptionist.
Zayd ibn Amr: rejected both Judaization and Adoptionism.
Maslama bin Habib: leader of the Banu Hanifa, offered to support the Salaf but was rejected.
Abu Qays ibn al-Aslaṭ: opposed the Salaf.
Abū 'Amar 'Abd Amr ibn Sayfī: a leader of the tribe of Banu Aws at Medina (possibly the Negev of Beersheba where Uthman's Nabatean-Ghassanid-Umayads were once based) and builder of the "Mosque of the Schism" and later allied with the Quraysh then moved to Ta'if and onto Syria after subsequent early Muslim conquests.
Gnostic Baptists were also called Ansari and associated with the Lakhmids or Ibadis of Iraq like Khadijah.
The Hebrew Term MaHmad (Mehmet)
The Parthian Gnostic term Mehmet comes from the Biblical Hebrew term Mahmad (מחמד) which as a noun rather than adjective is Israel's "Treasure" mentioned in:
- Hosea 9:6, God's Temple (Mahmad) will be overtaken by nettles
- Lamentations 1:10, God's Temple (Mahmad) will be trampled by the Gentiles
- Isaiah 64:11, God's Temple (Mahmad) is laid waste
- Joel 3:5, God's Temple (Mahmad) will be misappropriated by Gentiles
- and especially Ezekiel 24:16-25 God will take away Israel's Mahmad (God's Temple) as he did Ezikiel's Spouse.
Christian references to Jesus's appearance as the Temple of God occur in:
- John 2:19,
- Matt 27:40,
- Mark 14:58,
- Matt 26:61
- and Rev 21:22
In plural form the Hebrew word Mahmad becomes Mahamadim. This plural form refers to a minimum of three rather than just one nor only a plural of two. Mahamadim is Israel's Spouse, the Bridegroom in Song of Solomon 5:16.
Christian references to Jesus's appearance as the Bridegroom occur in Matt 9:15 and Mark 2:19-20.
It is important to note that neither Bahira, nor Sarjis Ben Saidah, nor Nabi Maslamah bin Habib, nor Nabi Sajah, nor Nabi Tulayha, nor Nabi Abdallah ibn Saad ibn Abi Sarh, nor Nabi Rahman (Al-Aswad al-Ansi), nor even the Dajjalic Nabi Saf nor any of the other Gnostics ever dared refer to themselves as Mahmad being as it was a Biblical Hebrew term for God's Temple. Gnostic Baptists believed only the Messiah's Shubiha to mankind can be considered to be "Mahmad" and rejected everyone else who claimed to be a Mahmad after the Messiah's Shubiha to mankind.
The Arabic Quran makes that clear when it explicitly links AlMasih ibn Marym and Muhammad together when it says: مَّا الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ إِلاَّ رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ "No one is the Messiah ibn Marym but a Ministry before whom all other ministries have certainly passed." (5:75) and clarifies this elsewhere by saying: مَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلاَّ رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ "And no one is God's Temple but a Ministry before whom all other ministries have certainly passed. So what if the Temple died or was killed? Are you going to turn back on your heels? Even so, he who turns back on his heels will never harm the divine Father at all; but the divine Father will reward the grateful."(3:144)
The ministry implied here is Thanksgiving as made explicit in 61:6.
Gnostic Baptists believed the Father's name had become flesh as the Messiah Jesus Mary's Son Rasul of the Father's physical Appearance (Divine Temple) which these Baptists called Mahmad (not to be confused with the Arabian Nabi) and so were also referred to as tribes of Mahmad. The term was written Muhmd by Anonymous, Mhmt by Thomas the Presbyter, Mahmet by Sebeos, but may be distinct from the Mahmad of John Nikiu and the Memed by John of Damascus. (see Ma'amad below)
Meanwhile, for Jews the Scriptural term Mahmad as a noun really only referred to the Temple and its treasures, not the appearance of Jesus. But it seems some Jews were willing to allow Jesus to be a Mahmad for the Gentiles.
Concerning the term "Muslim" which means "submitter", it should be noted that in the Torah, everywhere the word "Kenite" is used, it is translated to Aramaic by Onkelos as Salamai or Muslamai or Musalamai. Some suggest this refers to the great numbers of non-Jewish believers who came to sacrifice the Qurban Shlamim in Jerusalem together with the Jews indicating an origin as Gerim from Herodian Times.
Gerim or Ha-Garim is the term used in the Torah for such believers and seems to be the origin of related exonyms such as Hagarenes.
It should be emphasised that the religion of Ha-Garim or Musalamai would have been Noahite Judaism but not necessarily also Hanifism. Nevertheless, the Gnostic Believers and other Noahite Jews were all united for at least a short while under the Spiritual guidance of Abrahamite Jews like Kaʽb al-Aḥbār during their leaders' struggle to carve out an empire and then later most of them merged to form a new religious community.
It should be noted that most of the Quranic Materials are of Gnostic (Mubeen) origin and in them the Gnostic believers distinguished themselves slightly from those with whom they had a covenant of peace who they called Musulman while warning that such Arabs were most prone to hypocrisy and disbelief.
The Jewish leadership for Noahites could explain how some of the Mishna entered into the Quranic materials such as for example reference to the seven Mesani meaning the Sheva Mitzvot of Noah: Surat Al-Hijr 15.87 "And We have bestowed upon thee the Sheva Mitzvot and the Grand Qur'an." Surat Az-Zumar 39.23 "Allah has revealed the most beautiful Message in the form of a Book, consistent with the Sheva Mitzvot."
This is what the Mishna refers to as the religion of Noah which is confirmed in Surat Ash-Shura 42.13, "He has laid down the same religion for you as He enjoined on Noah: that which We have revealed to you and which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses and Jesus: 'Establish the religion and do not make divisions in it.' What you call the associators to follow is very hard for them. Allah chooses for Himself anyone He wills and guides to Himself those who turn to Him."
Ma'amad / Mahamad / Mahmud
The Judeo-Gnostics were certainly led by a Jewish Council called Ma'amad (מַעֲמָד meaning Office/Support/Status/Class/Position) more commonly pronounced Mahamad which is a unique type of Jewish leadership described in the Talmud a little bit like a mini-Sanhedrin.
The policy of the ma'amad tended to be conservative and authoritarian in the extreme.
On completion of its term of office the ma'amad itself appointed its successors (Khalifat).
Kaʽb al-Aḥbār certainly represents at least one of the probably 7 heads of the Mahamad.
The current London Mahamad has 5 heads.
Sebeos seems to confuse this Ma'amad with the Gnostic Mehmet.
In the Quran, the Ma'amad is referred to by name only once as Mahmud (Noble) to distinguish it from Mahmad (the Temple).
Hanifism and Hagarism merge as Islam
It is suggested that Ali and Salman the Persian were Gnostic Mullas while Abu Bakr, Umar and the Umayyads preferred to promote a proto-Karaite imitation of a Jewish Ma'amed (see explanation below) for the religious guidance of the Arabs.
As a result of the Umayyad influence on the Gnostics, by the end of the 7th century a religion (very much like that of the Neo-Paulican Tondraki of Armenia) took hold among Abu Hashim's Sufis from whom the Abbasids' Islamic religion emerged.
The Tyranny of Khosrau II
This section looks at what was happening in Khosrau's Empire during the dawn of Proto-Islam.
The tyrrany of Khosrow exposed the flaws in official church hierachies and saw an exponential increase in Christian Acephali as a result. Blind to the flaws in their system, the official hierarchies saw the increasing Acephali as nothing but apostates. The Syro-Aramaic word for Apostate is Haniph. The Acephalians in return saw the hierachies as unreasonable hypocrites.
The Gnostic Acephali embraced the term Haniph and used a different Syro-Aramaic Christian word meaning Judas (traitor) as their own word for apostates. The word Yahud in the Quran does not refer to Jews.
Nevertheless, Gnostic Baptists had great respect for Nestorians which for them referred to any Church which established a communion with Dyophysites. They considered Nestorians to be closest to themselves because of their humility and voluntary monasticism but criticised their observance of it as flawed and did not take such "Nestorians" as allies.
590 Caucasian Albania (Azerbaijan)
The Church of Caucasian Albania gains Autocephaly from Armenia. Azerbaijan was once a Parthian land and is the only country in the world where Alevism is the official state religion. Prior to that it was part of a Jewish empire called Khazaria. The time of the Autocephalous Church of Caucasian Albania immediately precedes the rise of the Khazarian Empire. Just how widespread Parthian Gnosticism was among the Chistians there is currently unknown and whether the Church of Caucasian Albania was important or not in the rise of Islam is unclear at this point but the area certainly became a refuge for Jewish Gnostics by the end of its autocephaly.
The Jewish Exilarch Haninai ruled from 580 to 590-591 when (according to Karaite sources) he was put to death by Khosrau II for supporting the Pahlavi Bahram VI. The next Exilarch's name appears to have been Gabirol. Jews were used as soldiers by Khosrau and were led by a Mahamad but after Khosrau's attempt to eradicate the Exilarchs, the Jewish government would eventually attempt to secure themselves in Edessa leaving the Jews with no public Exilarch again until Bostenai was installed by Umar following Umar's massacre of the Jews of Arabia.
Ignorant Iyas ibn Qabisah al-Taji is appointed governor of Al-Hira under Nakhiragan. A. J. Deus proposed that he is the historical person behind prophet Muhammad. This is the second time that Iyas is given authority by Khosrau. Although ignorant at this time it is very likely that he would have made every effort to get an education while in power this second time around so as not to lose power again. However, little did he know that his ignorance was the only reason the Sassanians put him in his position.
The Nestorian Catholicos Mar Sabrisho I died and a new Catholicos had to be elected. The choice fell between two men named Gregory: Bishop Gregory of Nisibis and Professor Gregory of Seleucia. King Khosrau II, the Sassanid emperor, stated only that his preferred candidate was Gregory, possibly meaning the bishop. The king's influential Monophysite wife Shirin, however, disliked Gregory of Nisibis and preferred Gregory of Seleucia, who had once been her steward. The Synod (council) rejected the king's initial candidate, taking advantage of the ambiguity of name, and chose Gregory of Seleucia, who became Mar Gregorius I. The king was accordingly displeased, and reluctantly supported the elected candidate (after applying a hefty fine to him), and said, Patriarch he is and patriarch he shall be – but never again do I allow another election.
604 Evictions in Nusaybis
The Persian Church's Chivalric Families who were evicted from Mt Izla Monastery in Nusaybis by Babai "the Great" in 604AD for opposing Babai's introduction of celibate monasticism there. Without the protection of a Patriarchate, many of those evicted would have converted to other Churches or religions. Some certainly turned to Acephalian Gnostic Baptism along with Salman the Persian who was one of those evicted according to the Standard Islamic Narrative. When historically known events are leave echoes 200 years later in tertiary sources, even those tertiary sources can be used as indications concerning true history.
604 Phocas Evicts Jews
In 604 Byzantine Emperor Phocas forces Romaniotes to convert or be evicted. Many flee to Dacia and allied themselves to Persia where they might have been welcomed as religious guides by increasing numbers of Acephalian Gnostics.
Those who are forced to convert into Jewish Christians will later join the Gnostics when the Byzantine influence in the Middle East finally collapses.
607-610 Third Council of Dvin
The Third Council of Dvin was a Caucasian Church council held in 607 (or 609-610) in the city of Dvin (then in Sasanian Armenia). It appoints Abraham I as Catholicoi of the See of Etchmiadzin but opens the door to Sabellian-Modalism, Tritheism and especially Eutychian-Adoptionism (Miaphysitism). Many Armenian Monophysites are dismayed and become Acephalian Gnostic Baptists at this point instead.
608 Nestorian Catholicosate Abolished
When the Catholicos Gregorius died a few years later in 608, the bishops made the usual request to the king to allow them to elect a new Catholicos, but Khosrau II had not forgotten the events of the previous election and refused them leave to do so. The royal physician Gabriel of Shiggar, a staunch Monophysite, used his influence with the king to prevent an election while suggesting Khosrau make Henana of Adiabene or one of his students Catholics but Khosrau's mind was made up.
The Acephalian Gnostic Pahlavis are keen to convert the suddenly Acephali Dyophysites to increase the Acephali faction and build up their party for a coup against Khosrau.
609 Romans defeated
609 Khosrow II of Persia with Sadducee armies defeats Phocas's Romans and has Anastasius II (the younger) of Antioch murdered to prevent his Nestorians having any dyophysites leaders in his Empire other than Abraham I.
This in fact increases even more the Acephalians in Khosrau's empire which is fully utilised by the apahlavibGnistics to their advantage.
612 Synod of Khosrow
Khosrow II held an Eastern Church Colloquy in 612.
The already unpopular Babai attempts to placate Gnostics by presenting the idea that the divine being has an authoritative operator and a subordinate operator inside of a third operator "a wonderful union" of the other two as God's primary Rasul to all the worlds. All three were born as Mary's child. Thus Babai's Nestorians said Allah's Rasul is a partnership between the divine and its creation.
This satisfied many Nestorians whose opposition to Monophysites was based on the assumption that they rejected 2 operators. Most Monophysites are also satisfied. But his attempts to unify the Syro-Aramaic Christians backfired as it could be interpreted by Gnostics as capitulation to the Gnostic idea of three identities in Christ even though the Gnostics denied any true humanity to Christ whom they regarded as an angelic divine being untainted by sinful creation. Thus the Gnostic position was inadvertently bolstered by Babai's new formula and again, this could be used by the Pahlavis to their advantage.
The Gnostic Rasul is Thanksgiving.
Lakhmidia's Last Arab King in Al-Hira
The increasing numbers of Acephali created a leadership void which was filled when an influential person, possibly (according to A. J. Deus) Iyas ibn Qabisa of Tayyaye (Tashih/Tachk/Tajik) being Khosrow II's Client ruler in AlHira over the Lakhmidians, joined their movement.
Islamic sources indicate that he was one quarter Jewish but was also sometimes referred to as ibn Abu Kabsha (Father Kabsha's son) perhaps indicating he was from a Nestorian priestly family considering the same sources indicate that he was married to a Nestorian called Khadijah by a Nestorian Priest called Waraqa ibn Naufal who had once been a Gnostic. But some time between the abolishon of the Catholicosate and the Synod of Khosrau, the son of Father Kabsha abandoned the Nestorians and began to learn from a certain Gabriel in Hira.
This same Gabriel is described in Islamic sources according to Aisha was on all but 2 occasions seen in the form of a disciple called Nabi Dihyah Wahi ibn Khalifah al-Kalbi. One may speculate that the resemblance was because his father, the Khalifa in question, may have been the same Gabriel who taught in Hira.
Further speculation on Gabriel's identity points to Exilarch Haninai's son, who may have moved from Pumbedita to Al-Hira after his father's execution. It is known that the last Parsig Emperor Khosrow II tried to exterminate the heirs to the Exilarchy.
However, the accusation that the Quranic materials were being taught by Waraqah emerged, to which the response was that he was Ajami (not a devotee) while the materials were in the linguistic style used only by Gnostic (Mubina) devotees (Arabs). If Father Kabsha's son's teacher was Jewish then he would have to have been a Gnostic one.
In any event the Islamic sources are clear that he abandoned the religion of his Father and became a Gnostic (Hanif) Baptist (Sabi).
The Quraysh (Association)
Father Kabsha's Son is also referred to in Islamic sources as having been a member of the Quraysh (Association). This may be an echo of the historical fact that the "ignorant Arab" that Khosrow II appointed to rule Lakhmidian was in the Association of Persian Nobles.
Islamic sources indicate that this Association was based in Makah (originally spelled with one k).
The earliest available description of the location of Makah identifies it with the area of Akkad in the Mesopotamian desert between Al-Kaldiya and Carra.
613 Romans, Eclipse, Occultation
Two events mentioned in the Islamic Quran that seem possible to use for dating are the defeat of the Romans presumably by Khosrau in chapter 30 verse 2 and the splitting of the moon mentioned in 54:1. Khosrau II's campaign against the Romans is well known. As for the splitting of the moon, various types of eclipse have been suggested. If it is was simply a Dog Moon then there will be no way to pinpoint the timing of such a meteological event.
If the splitting of the moon does not refer to some kind of an Eclipse it could refer instead so some kind of occultation adding more reason behind the adoption of the Sasanian Star and Crescent as a symbol for Islam. But the timing and the location of that occultation has yet to be identified.
An eclipse was visible in Arabia at this time.
While the names Ieso and Yahia are from Persian Gnosticism, the use of the word darāhima (12:20:4 ድራክማ in Amharic Դրախմա in Armenian) in the Quranic materials is of Byzantine origin from the word Drahma indicating that the Quranic materials were being used by/for people of Gnostic beliefs but who nevertheless did not live in an area that was used to using Dinars. They were certainly not Romans as they pointed out that the Romans had been defeated but since the currency was anyway the Drahma instead of the Dinar they understood that Sassanian control in their area was weak and expected that within 10 years the Romans in turn would be victorious. For some reason the Gnostic authors were operating in a 'down but not out' Byzantine economic sphere. The fact that the Sassanians and Persians are not mentioned in the final Quran is also worth deep consideration.
616 Copts & Syriacs
Coptic Pope Anastasius of Alexandria establishes communion with the Sabellian Patriarch Athenasius Gamolo of the (formerly Tritheist) Syriac Orthodox Church.
Many hard-line Monophysites may have objected to the Union and become Acephali at this time to be absorbed by the Gnostics.
First Hijra 617
Islamic sources indicate that the Taji ruler of Lakhmidia was ousted from Al-Hira by Azadbeh's Parsigs in 617AD.
No doubt he would have begun plotting his revenge against them as a result even though Islamic sources seem to suggest he remained in the city with his family. It is possible that the ruler of Lakhmidia then went to settle with the Jews of Edessa who welcomed him into their Ma'amad.
The fact is that the same sources do indicate that many believers had to emigrate to Abyssinia at this time.
The Monophysite Acephali sought asylum in the Severian Tewahedo Kingdom of Negash in Abyssinia which eventually settled them in the Tihamah of Hejaz which used to belong to Abyssinia and was occupied by the Ansar Sabaeans (not Sabians) from Yemen.
Since the Muhajirun were Acephalic Severians (themistians to be precise), the difference between them and Abyssinia's Cephalic Severians (regarded by the Acephali as "Nestorians" after the Coptic Pope entered communion with the Eutychian-Miaphysite Patriarch Gamolo in 616AD) is described as no more than a stick (a Bishop's Staff) because the Banu Hanifa had originally followed the same Coptic Popes that Abyssinia did but following their rejection of Church hierarchy were now under no Bishop's crook.
An obscure comment in the Islamic Quran indicates that the Noble Association (Quraysh) in the Belly of Makah (Akkad in the Mesopotamian desert between Al-Kaldiya and Carra) somehow hindered the Pilgrims from their Protected place of Worship. It is not easy to imagine what this means given the historically known facts which contradict the Islamic narrative.
The simplest explanation for the location of the Protected place of Worship would be the Temple Mount but it is not easy to imagine how Persians in Akkad could have hindered pilgrims from their protected place of worship if it was on the other side of the fertile Crescent. The standard a Islamic Narrative does have a good point that such was only possible if the place was in Makah. But the facts do show the earliest Masjids faced the Negev while Makah was in Mesopotamia. The only possible explanation is that the Qibla of the Quran has nothing to do with the direction that the Mosques were facing.
The suggestion is that the mosques were Noahite Synagogues facing Jerusalem. But the Qibla discussed in the Quran referred to nothing other than the Kabbalah.
Khosrau II of Persia invades Egypt.
The Oriental Orthodox Communion is established.
Immediately following the conquest of Egypt is earliest likely year for Khosrow II's persecution of Exilarchate.
Erruption of the Saracens
George Arsas brought forward the eruption of the Saracens in rebellion because of the treachery of John the Almsgiver in 618/619.
Against Church advise, Heraclius orders the Gates of Caucasian Albania be opened to bring about the end of Persia.
The Jews of Edessa would soon be able to assert their independence.
622 Heraclius Liberates Cappadocia
In 622 Heraclius probably in concert with Aksum launched a campaign against Khosrau. It is no coincidence that this is also the year in which that the Arabs consider their independence began. In the 660s, Sebeos tells us that when Heraclius captured Edessa in the 620s the Jews fleeing from Edessa claimed asylum in the New Medina (possibly the Negev of Beersheba or Wadi Rafidain) but initially failed to win any allies to their cause until Judaizing the Ishmaelites into HaGarim on the ideas of a learned Mahmet scholar who arrived in the New Medina later that year. Thus this became the year the Believers (Jews, Nestorians and Sabians) settled their case. The first year of the Arabs.
Monoenergism vs Gnostic Acephali
A Sabi (Baptist) did present the faith to Heraclius as the Hadiths claim. But there was no leader by the name of Muhammad mentioned the Byzantine version of the story. https://sunnah.com/bukhari/1/7 Lakhmidian King sends Acephalian Messenger, Paul (Nabi Dihyah Wahi ibn Khalifah al-Kalbi), to discuss Christology with victorious Dyophysite Heraclius in Jerusalem who writes to Sergius about it. In fact, the belief presented was Monophysitsm and the presenter was called Paulic (its adherents came to be called Paulician by the Byzantines ever since).
"When the Emperor Heraclius in the course of the war which he began about 619, came to Theodosiopolis (Erzeroum) in Armenia (about 622), a Monophysite named Paul, a leader of the Acephali, made a speech before him in favour of his heresy. The emperor refuted him with theological arguments, and incidentally made use of the expression "one operation" of Christ."
Like Phocas and Khosrow before him, he too issues his decree from on high that all the Christians of his empire should unite in religion.
At first it seems no one really knew what Heraclius meant. Nevertheless, the case of the believers was settled.The standard narrative says that Heraclius himself was actually convinced at first but eventually changed his mind due to pressure from his Nobles.
Gabriel's (or Ariel's) visit
Some time after that the monophysite-polyenergist Gabriel is said to have visited the New Medina (Sinjar mountains in Wadi Rafidain) to test his students.
Apparently the possibility that Gabriel also spoke that language was ruled out perhaps simply because Gabriel claimed no ability in the Lisan Arabi Mubina.
Mubina derives from Bina as the Angel of Christ who sits at the right hand of Keter with Ahmed (Achamuth) at the left. Mubina speaks for the Churches. Mubina teaches the Mursaleen (Rasul's Bride) who teach the Mu'mineen towards whom the Muslims are supposed to be friendly.
This it seems the Nabis (which still included Maslama bin Habib at this point) presented themselves as interpreters of ecclesiastical poems for Sabi Apostles which Gabriel taught allegedly being not his own compositions but from Christ's Angel through the Spiritual gift of Glossolalia alone by the power of the Father's name.
Ibn Abu Qabsah is said to have finally got his revenge against Azadbeh on the Day of Dhū-Qār in the Makah vicinity just north of Hira a few months after Badr in 624.
But until his death the Lakhmidian King was still just one of many Nabis of the Sabi-Hanifism who had learned Gabriel's Ecclesiastical poetry.
The conflicting reports that Iyas or his son were on the Persian side is not consistent with him having been ousted. It is in short, a deliberate hazing of the facts invented to hide his true identity and the fact that he was indeed actually working for Kavod II at this time.
The Battle of the Trench in Yathrib to protect Tazigstan.
626-628 Oppressing Dyoenergism
In the end, Heraclius came up with Dyophysite-Monoenergism. In simple language that means the human nature of Jesus was nothing but God's glove puppet and looked a lot like Eutychianism which also reduced the human nature of Jesus to no meaning. Thus the Byzantine authorities prohibited citizens from thinking in terms of Jesus having a mind of his own from 626 to 681.
Heraclius imposed his glove pipped Jesus (Dyophysite-Monoenergism) in reconqueried Armenia and other Eastern Provinces.
Many Monophysites (especially modalists) accepted his terminology. But the Pahlavi Baptists were more upset.
Later in 626 he inquired of Cyrus, Bishop of Phasis and metropolitan of the Lazi, whether his terminology was correct. "Cyrus was uncertain, and by the emperor's order wrote to Sergius the Patriarch of Constantinople, whom Heraclius greatly trusted, for advice. Sergius in reply sent him a letter said to have been written by Mennas of Constantinople to Pope Vigilius and approved by the latter, in which several authorities were cited for one operation and one will. This letter was afterwards declared to be a forgery and was admitted to be such at the Sixth General Council."
Last possible year for the birth of Bostanai.
According to Jewish sources, in his last year, Khosrow II also hunted down and exterminated the Exilarch Gabirol and the remaining sons of David at this time leaving only the young pregnant mother of Bostanai alive. Bostanai may have been identical with Hanina ben Adoi.
Siroe/Kavad II (Conquest of Makah)
Khosrow II was overthrown in 628 and was replaced by the rather Monophysite Byzantine Emperor Maurice's grandson Kavad II in Old Medina who appointed Heraclius regent over his son when he died.
Again, it is no simple coincidence that the conquest of Makah coincides with the Byzantine conquest of Khosrow. Even the location of Makah according to the Continuatio Byzantia Arabica is Akkad in the desert between Al-Kaldiya and Carra (i.e. Adiabene's Carron region of the modern day Erbil Governorate) the city of Mesopotamia, indicating an area which was under Khosrow II's control until the Byzantines defeated him.
Al-Hira is located between Chaldea and Carra.
During the conquest the Hanifian Baptists who had been ousted from the desert area, between Kaldea and the Mesopotamian City Carra in the preceding decade, returned to take control without a fight.
7AH Heraclius & Nabi Dihyah Wahi ibn Khalifah al-Kalbi
The standard narrative places Heraclius & Serjius's secret belief in 7AH that Elijah had returned at about this point.
The Critical Years of 628-630
Understanding the chronology of what happened next is essential.
It seems first that the Ghassanid Monophysite Church entered a brief union with Heraclius.
According to Islamic tradition, Heraclius ordered the Ghassanid prince to submit to the Muslims. The Umayyads were Jews and Ghassanids descended from Siraces who served the Pahlavis (Parthians) and who were instrumental in the establishment of the short-lived Palmyrian Empire. They were converted to the Taji religion but soon adopted displacement theology.
But then the Nestorians were allowed to establish their own Catholicos again greatly upsetting the Monophysites. Many would have joined the Acephali in protest against the Ghassanid Patriarch at this time.
Heraclius proclaimed himself "Basileus" in 629 the first Greek since the Seleucids to be Persia's King of Kings greatly upsetting the Pahlavis by forcing the Armenian Catholicos Ezras into communion.
The Nestorian Catholicos Ishoʿyahb II of Gala entered communion with Byzantium in 630.
The Monophysite Church immediately broke communion with Heraclius and established a Maphrian of all the East to oppose the Nestorian Catholicos. This may have been to appease their congregations who were no doubt furious about being united to the Nestorians.
At the same time the Pahlavis had different ideas and rejected Heraclius's regency over Kavodh's young son Ardashir whom they established on the throne instead triggering the chain of events which soon led to Arab supremacy in the region. There was nothing supernatural about it.
The Pasigs vs Pahlavi Civil War
Heraclius's responded by instigating a civil war between the Parsigs and Pahlavis while this is the time associated with the Conquest of Makah in the standard narrative, no doubt having been armed by the Pahlavis to use as infantry against the Parsigs.
Heraclius sent the Zoroastrian Shahrbaraz to kill the Monophysite Christian Child-Prince Ardashir and crucify his Christian supporters.
At the same time Aksum sent a navy to re-claim the Hejaz.
Shahrbaraz established himself on the throne in 630 but was quickly replaced by the Monophysite Christian Borandokht who was in turn dethroned by Parsing Shapur followed by her own half-sister the Zoroastrian Azarmidokht. Azarmidokht was opposed by the Pahlavi Farrukh whom she executed then Farrukh's son Rostam who executed her and restored Borandokht to the throne in 631. But the Parsigs did not give up and had her strangled in 632.
632 ʿAlī's Term
During the Gnostic Mulla Abu Turab's reign, his "Believers" had cordial relations with the Oriental Orthodox and the Papacy but fought against Byzantine suppression of Dyoenergism. His Believers sometimes marched into battle under the banner of the Cross and the Cross appeared on his Coins. However, his importance was gradually diminished by the rise of the Judaizers in the west.
Abu Bakr and the Proto-Karaites
In their Association (Quraysh) Abu Bakr, Umar and the Umayyads can be identified as Proto-Karaites. They opposed ascribing any kind of uncommon divinity to the Gnostic Mehmet. The Gnostics Baptists called them Judases and regarded them as traitors so Abu Bakr set about forcing their Mullas to pledge allegiance to him or die. Nabi Maslamah bin Habib, Nabi Sajah and Nabi Rahman (Al-Aswad al-Ansi) were all killed. Nabi Tulayha and Nabi Abdallah ibn Saad ibn Abi Sarh and the Dajjalic Nabi Saf all pledged allegiance. But the Dajjalic Nabi Saf was not trusted and eventually vanished.
Their beliefs are very similar to those held later by Ananites like the Karaylar.
It is important to note that the description of Mahmad in the Umayyad Quran is nothing like a Jewish Ma'amed. However the description of the the Nabi by Abu Isa, as well as the descriptions concerning the Arab Leadership given by the likes of Sebeos, John of Nikiu and John of Damascus are all consistent with the idea that these Proto-Karaites continued their own version of a Jewish Ma'amed leadership which was called Mahmud in the Quran once (in contrast to the 4 mentions of Mahmad).
It is certain that the Abbasids merged these two ideas to create the Islamic legend of Muhammad.
An alleged truce between the Pasigs and Pahlavis was reached and Yazdegard was established on the throne in 632 as a compromise between the two parties. However, the alleged treaty/compromise is not believable. This thesis proposes that Yazdegard was simply the Parsigs candidate but the Pahlavi candidate was Ali. After decades on the run, his daughter Shahrbonu was wed to Ali's son Hussein whose Father following the old King's demise ruled from Al-Hira until his assassination in 661. But the marriage pact was dishonoured by her brothers who sought support in China.
The word Mawali is usually understood to mean Mawla'i meaning Lord's. But in true interpretation means Lords.
Ali and al-Hanafiyyah
The curious story of the Banu Hanifa Princess Khawlah bint Ja'far.
Abu Turab's Tome
According to our Thesis, Ali represented Hanifism as Islam had not yet been invented. According to our theory it was Abu Bakr, and Umar then Uthman who laid the ground work for the establishment of the Book of the Arabs and the Religion of the Arabs created under Abdul Malik.
The "Tome" is the original Syro-Aramaic Johannite Tome of the Gnostics that Ali offered to his military commanders but which they rejected in favour of the partly goat-eaten Hafsa Mushaf. Ali's is not the same version which was defended by Abdullah ibn Masood and his supporters whom Uthman had killed after breaking Ibn Masood's ribs. Ubayy also had his own version. So there were altogether at one point so far as we know from Islamic sources alone, 4 competing versions of the Quran.
One of them is the "Tome" in question which explains how Pope Martin could have been charged with granting the Saracens their "Tome" as it would not have been vastly different from other Dyoenergists at this point who were all working together against the anti-Dyoenergism of the 7th century Byzantine Emperors.
Leo III refers to how Abu Turab and Salmani Fars and Umar all contributed material to the Book of the Arabs.
632 Rivalry: Arabs vs Pahlavi Mawali
Although Ali and the Pahlavis had made their deal with the Pasigs, the Pahlavi Mawali faced political opposition from the more Judaized Nestorians Arabs of Abu Bakr, Aisha, Umar, Hafsa and the Umayyads.
Abu Bakr was probably a Judaized Nestorian Ishmaelite under the guidance of Kaʽb al-Aḥbār. He took much delight in announcing in 632 "Those who follow Muhammad, know that he is dead. As for those who follow The Father, know that he is alive forever!"
Kaʽb al-Aḥbār and his followers set about the difficult task to replace the idea that Jesus was God's temple if there was to be any hope of rebuilding a Shrine for the Jews on the Temple Mount.
While the Imam in Al-Hira was the dead king's son in law Ali, the defacto political leader, Abu Bakr, began to make changes to Hanifism. Shia sources indicate that Abu Bakr was nothing more than Umar's stooge and that Umar himself was heavily influenced by Kaʽb al-Aḥbār.
Abu Bakr set about consolidating his power and killed the Gnostic Baptist Nabis who stood in his way. Abu Bakr, sought to reverse the influence of the Gnostic Baptists by executing Maslama bin Habib and subjugating the Banu Hanifa. But Ali is said to have sympathised with them taking their princess as his bride.
Abu Bakr's MusHaf
The standard narrative says that Zaid ibn Thabit was first ordered to set about collecting Quranic materials during the reign of Abu Bakr who did not want to use Ali's Mushaf nor Ubayy ibn Ka'b's Mushaf nor Abdalla ibn Masood's Mushaf. There is no reason to believe that Abu Bakr thought that Gabriel the Persian was nothing more than a poet.
Inscriptions and Poetry
The Gnostic Baptists left plenty of rock inscriptions but most of their doctrine comes from Gabriel.
Rogation of the Ninevites
"God told Jonah: Had your Lord so wished, all people everywhere would have been believers. But that is not His way, hence do not force anyone to take to Our path unless they do so willingly. No one can believe except by the will of God; only those who are skeptics do not understand His message."
It looks like "Jews for Allah" accidentally used the Nestorian Lection instead of the Islamic one because in Pickthal's translation it reads:
"And if thy Lord willed, all who are in the earth would have believed together. Wouldst thou (Muhammad) compel men until they are believers. It is not for any soul to believe save by the permission of Allah. He hath set uncleanness upon those who have no sense."
If you have ever read a verse in the Quran but have never been able to find it since, it is possible that the Muslim who showed it to you might have accidentally used a Nestorian Lectionary instead.
It seems Zoroastrians and Polytheists were also welcomed into the Covenant of Peace alongside Jews, Nasara and Sabians.
633 The Battle of Hira
When Khaled took Amgheshiya in 633, Azadbeh's army stood outside Hira before losing everything later that year.
In the 660s, Sebeos mentions a Mahmet Torah Scholar inciting Judaized Ishmaelies to take the Holy land and how they organised their approach. It is very possible that Sebeos was confusing Mahmet with Kaʽb al-Aḥbār.
Nestorians petition Abu Bakr
The Chronicle of Seert, probably written in the ninth century, records two approaches to the Muslims from the Nestorian Church. The first by Ishoʿyahb's emissaries to Abu Bakr (632–4).
At times the first Arab conquests were led – in a noteworthy paradox – under a flag bearing a cross (Alichoran, 1996: 86)
The Nestorians made a second approach this time by Ishoʿyahb himself to the caliph ʿUmar ibn al-Khattab (634–44). ʿUmar is said to have granted the Church of the East a charter of protection.
Some of the Saracen leaders mentioned during Umar's name are referred to by similar names such as Amr. The standard narrative is that they represent different people but it might not necessarily be the historical case. However, a major obstacle to equating the two is that the standard narrative places Umar under the influence of Kaʽb al-Aḥbār's form of Judaism while Amr was most impressed by the Coptic Pope Benjamin.
According to the standard narrative, Ramadan had always coincided with the Fast of Adam and Eid ulAzhar had always coincided with Passover preparations until 632. But neglecting intercalations for the 12 Lunar Months the calendar had slipped forward two whole months against the Solar year by the time Umar came to power in 634. Umar opted to stay with 12 lunar months instead of returning to the system of intercalation used until 632.
Rav. Ben Abrahamson has indicated that this may have been as a result of Kaʽb al-Aḥbār's influence who represented a sect of Jews who had opposed Hillel II's Hebrew calendar.
In 634 Heraclius forbade further discussion of energism.
634 Tayyaye d'Mhmt
In 640, Thomas the Presbyter reported that the "Tayyaye d-Mhmt" were fighting with Romans 12 miles east of Gaza in 634.
In his 634 Christmas Sermon, the hardcore Dyophysite Sophronius mentions that the "Godless" Saracens had taken Bethlehem and that is what you get when you don't respect Baptism.
634 Carthage Doctrina Yacobi
Byzantine propaganda attempts to break down relations between Jews and the Judaized Ishmaelite Nestorians.
"What can you tell me about the prophet who has appeared with the Saracens?" He replied, groaning deeply: "He is false, for the prophets do not come armed with a sword."
It concludes that Jews should side with Byzantine Christianity instead.
Ctesiphon surrenders to Umar.
Peroz III son of Yazdegard is born.
"Muhmd and many people were slain"
Sophronius the Dyophysite hands Jerusalem over to Umar.
The Temple Mount Masjid
Umar asked Kaʽb al-Aḥbār "Where do you advise me to build a place of worship?" Ka‘b indicated the Temple Rock, now a gigantic heap of ruins from the temple of Jupiter. The Jews, Ka‘b explained, had briefly won back their old capital a quarter of a century before (when Persians overran Syria), but they had not had time to clear the site of the Temple, for the Byzantines (Rūm) had recaptured the city. It was then that Umar ordered the rubbish on the Temple Rock to be removed by the Nabataeans, and after three showers of heavy rain had cleansed the Rock, he instituted prayers there. Umar is said to have fenced it.
Rav. Ben Abrahamson has said that Jews began to keep lamps burning outside of the wooden structure at that time.
Sophronius validates that account as follows:
"the godless Saracens entered the holy city of Christ our Lord, Jerusalem, with the permission of God and in punishment for our negligence, which is considerable, and immediately proceeded in haste to the place which is called the Capitol. They took with them men, some by force, others by their own will, in order to clean that place and to build that cursed thing, intended for their prayer and which they call a Midzgitha (Masjid)."
The timid Pope Honorius dies. Sergius of Constantinople dies. Sophronius dies. Dyophysite Heraclius outlaws discussion of Dyoenergism. The Muslims are alleged to have attempted to seat the Monothelite Bishop Sergius of Jaffa as the Patriarch of Jerusalem. Umar establishes the Dyoenergist Monophysite Armenian Patriarch Abraham I as Patriarch of Jerusalem.
The standard narrative says that Amr ibn al-As joined the companions of the Arabian Nabi in 629. However, historical sources say that Amr said he "had never seen such an impressive man of God as" the Coptic Pope Benjamin.
644 Emir Umayr
An 874 manuscript titled Disputation of John and the Emir it is recorded that on the 9th of May 644, and the Emir Umayr ibn Sad al-As arise invited the Syria Orthodox Patriarch John III of the Sedre to explain the Byzantine faith to him. The Byzantine praised his efforts. At the Emir's request, John also had the Gospel translated from Syriac into Arabic by Arab Christians from the Banu Uqayl, Tanukh, and Tayy (Tashih/Tachk/Tajik) tribes. It is alleged that the emir had initially demanded that mentions of the name of Christ, the baptism, and the Cross be removed from the translation, but relented following John's refusal. The request to remove the title Christ and the Cross indicates the Emir was influenced by Judaism. He did not believe Jesus was Christ and did not want the Jews blamed for crucifixion.
644 Bostanai & Umar
It is also said that another of Yazdegard's daughters called Dara was given in marriage to the 16 year old Bostanai at this time.
Uthman succeeds Umar.
Uthman's Mushaf (650s)
According to the standard narrative, Uthman ordered all Quranic materials to be burned except for the "Quraysh" version written by Zaid ibn Thabit. He also killed the supporters of the Qari Ibn Masud who opposed his decision.
Pope Martin of Gaza
It is likely that if there is any truth at all to the charge that Pope Martin granted the Saracens their Tome that it refers to the original Book of the Mawali and not to Uthman's redacted Book of the Arabs. According to Islamic histories there were 4 Mushafs in existence at this time: Uthman's, ibn Masood's, Ubayy'and Ali's. Again concerning the charge of supplying money to them. It may have been to the Mawali cause to overthrown the Umayyads.
653 Paulician Gnostics
Paulic, the Armenian from the Saracen Empire converts Constantine-Silvanus. Paulician Gnostics believe that Jesus is an uncreated Spirit like a human but wholly divine in origin with no human flesh taken from Mary's body and subordinate to God the Father.
Paulician Gnostics were branded as Jews, Mohammedans, Arians, and Manichean (Hanifian). It is possible that their opponents employed such "pejorative" appellations merely as terms of abuse. They called themselves "Believers".
It seems that these Paulicians represent the remnant of the Parthian Judeo-Gnostic Mullas who sought to escape the change of political climate in the Caliphate.
655 Battle of Masts
656 Tashih (Tayyaye/Tachk/Tajik)
Both Sebeos and a Chinese source concerning events preceeding 656 mention the Titular land of the new West Persian (Po-ssu) Kingdom as Tashih or Tachkastan. The word Tajiklar is still the Turkish name for Kurdish Mawali (Alevis). The Chinese source calls the rulers of the land Mo-shou (Musulman). The word Tajik was originally used to designate Persian Sufis.
The word Tajik may be related to the word Tarsak meaning God-fearer. The Muslims were told not to attack anyone in war who declared "Metras".
Another Chinese source calls them Dashi.
656 The First Fitna
As soon as the Caliph and Imam had secured their kingdom they began to fight each other. In 656 Muawiya succeeded Uthman and stepped up Arab opposition to the Mawali Pahlavis which his predecessors had subdued.
659 Muawiya's Vassalage
In 659, Mu'awiya even concluded a truce with Byzantium, including payment of tribute to the Empire.
Hence some of Muawiya's inscriptions and early coins have crosses on them. But like all Karaites, Muawiya did not know anything about Jesus. He only knew of Karaism's Yeshu HaNotzri the son of Magdalena and Joses Pantera. Muawiya himself believed Yeshu was a skilled talker and a Martyred Prophet who attained glory in heaven. The cross for Muawiya was nothing but a symbol of martyrdom to "face death bravely as Christ did". While praising martyrdom, he probably considered Christianity to be Martyrolatry.
For Muawiya, only worthless flesh died on the cross, so Jesus should not be said to have been killed as per Quran 2:154 and in Muawiya's reality was therefore somehow taken from the cross to heaven where Muawiya believed he lives on forever unaware of the affairs of this world. For him, displaying the cross was a symbol of accepting one's own martyrdom bravely just as the Karaites of Babi Yar did.
Muawiya believed that the crucified body put in the tomb which Christians worship was nothing but worthless dead flesh.
His position was despised by the party of Ali.
Coinciding with the escape of many Mawali from Muawiya, Constantine-Silvanus establishes a Paulician community at Armenian Kibosa. It may be the only Gnostic Baptist colony to have successfully established itself in the Anatolian-Roman Imperial province of Armenia under the full scrutiny of the Byzantines, therefore providing a unique peep into what at least the Saracens Mawali probably believed at that time.
Alevis believe they descend from Paulicians.
661 Muawiya's Primacy
Muawiya was crowned in Jerusalem. Although Muawiya had used the cross on the Hammat Gader inscription at about this time, the Cross began to be replaced by a pole on the Dirahm marking the rise of the Judaizer faction. Muawiya soon ceased paying tribute to the Byzantine Empire and was perhaps even was converted away from a belief in the Cross.
Muawiya of Quraysh forced the Mawali imamates underground and ended the civil wars for 20 years which resumed when the imamate tried to raise its head again upon Muawiya's death in 680. After killing Hussein many Quraysh repented and punished themselves.
Sebeos covers the rise of the Ishmaelies from their Judaization in 622 to the ascendancy of Muawiya.
Amr ibn al-As dies. The Coptic Church no longer has any Mawali on their side.
2nd Imam Hassan 661-670
Muawiyah praises Lahut but derides Nasut.
3rd Imam Hussein 670-680
680 Yazid I
About the time of Yazid I, the 6th Ecumenical Council of 680/681 approved Dyoenergism and condemned Tritheism.
Led by Macarius then Theophanes of Antioch (681–687) most of Arabia's Old Orthodox Eastern Catholics did not accept the anathematization of Pope Honorius's words. Clinging to Papal Monothelitism they were labelled as Greek Arian-Monothelites.
The Mawali's 4th Imam
The Mawali agreed with Al-Mukhtar al-Thaqafi of Kufa that Ali's son Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah should succeed Hussain as the 4th Imam.
683 Muawiya II
John Maron begins to convert the Maronites who may have been Mawali up to this point.
Interestingly, the name Maron is spelled the same way as the name Marwan in Arabic.
These Old Orthodox Eastern Catholics did accept the council. They made contact with Rome and presented John Maron as their candidate for Eastetn Catholic Patriarch of Antioch. John Maron was approved by Rome in 685 as Rome was unable to reform Patriarch Macarius.
685 Abdul Malik
685 Mukhtar's Severian uprising in Kufa against Abdul Malik.
686 On 17 July Mukhtar defeats the Umayyads. His supporters are not iconoclasts.
686 Zubayr betrays Mukhtar's Severian and establishes rival Caliphate in Mecca.
684-688 Jacob of Edessa
Jacob, Bishop of Edessa states that Mehagarim in Egypt face Eastern Kaba not South and that Mehagarim in Basra face Western Kaba not South.
Zubayr has Mukhtar killed.
In 687 Justinian II set out without Papal approval to enforce the 6th Ecumenical Council and deal with Theophanes and his Arabian "Melkites" of Antioch and All the East, Jerusalem and Alexandria so in 692 Rome split with Greece again but it was too late to win back the support of the Arabs.
Abdul Malik crushes the Zubayris and establishes "The Arab Religion" (Ishmaelism).
Abdul Malik was the first to attempt to unite all of the Arabs by devising a new Religion for the Arabs by incorporating many ideas even from the 6th Ecumenical Council.
At first he adopted the idea that Jesus was killed on a pole rather than a cross before abandoning all such imagery entirely, perhaps for purely pragmatic reasons of not wanting to upset one party or another. To be a Muslim for him meant to refuse to discuss matters of religious contention but accept vague and ambiguous general statements.
690 John of Nikiu
690 John of Nikiu's comment about "the Beast that is Mahamad" may be inspired by the 7 heads of the Ma'amad governing body.
Previously Sebeos and Thomas the Presbyter had reported on the rise of the Tayyaye (Tashih/Tachk/Tajik) as if they were any other political faction in Christendom but John of Nikiu builds on the foundations laid by Sophronius marking a turning point. This will become the general Christian view of Islam (though not so much among Monophysites) into the present.
Abdul Malik orders Hajjaj to prepare Uthman's book for the composition of the Quran. Hajjaj encourages people to "compose the Quran the same way Gabriel did" using certain materials.
691 Nestorian Catholicos Hananisho
Catholicos, Hnanicho, encountered 'Abd-al-Malik who asked him, 'What do you think of the Arab religion?' to which the Catholicos replied: 'It is a religion established by the sword, and not a faith confirmed by divine miracles, as with the Christianity and like the old law of Moses.' At first Abdul Malik wanted to have his tongue cut out but changed his mind instead to prohibit him from ever seeing him again.
From Abdul Malik's point of view his religion was very tolerant towards the Nestorians and he expected more appreciation.
It is possible the comments of the Catholicos are responsible for Abdul Malik's change in direction.
Abdul Malik removes pole from the Dirham and introduces iconoclasm.
The Quinsext Council opens a schism again between Byzantium on one side against the Roman Papacy and the Maronite Patriarchate of Antioch together on the other side.
694 Dome of the Rock
In-keeping with Abu Bakr's and Muawiya's positions, there is no indication anywhere in the Dome of the Rock inscriptions that the Umayyads believed Jesus had escaped death.
Abdul Malik certainly tried to enforce the Dome as the Kaba for his Empire, perhaps hoping no one would notice that most masjids had previously been facing the Negev.
700 Abu HaShem the 5th Imam
Under their 5th Imam, Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah , the Mawali became the Hashimite Alevis.
705 Caucasian Albania
The anti-Chalcedonian clergy of Caucasian Albania convoked a council and anathematized Nerses and his supporters. Elias, Catholicos of Armenia, followed up by writing a letter to Caliph Abd al-Malik notifying him of the political threat that Chalcedonianism was posing to the region. Abd al-Malik arranged for the arrest of Nerses and Spram, who were then bound in fetters and exiled.
After the overthrow of Nerses in 705, the Caucasian Albanian elite decided to reestablish the tradition of having their Catholicoi ordained through the Patriarch of Armenia, as was the case before 590. This event is generally regarded as the abolition of the Church of Caucasian Albania through the loss of its autocephaly, and the lowering of its hierarchical status to that of a subordinate body within Armenian Apostolic Church.
705 Al-Walid I
John of Damascus refers to a contemporary Ma'amad leading the Ishmaelies.
715 Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik
716 Rise Of The Abbasids
The founder of the Abbasid dynasty was Muhammad Al-Imam who took control in 716. He tried to unite the Mawali and the Sunnis.
Under Abbasid influence a new Quran using materials from the Umayyads "book of the Arabs" and from the Mawali's Ahsana al-Hadith was composed.
Ultimately the Abbasid attempt at egalitarianism backfired. No doubt the Arabs would never have come on board if they felt they did not own the revelation. So the Abbasids granted them that but in the end their attempt to unite the Arabs and Mawali inevitably kept the religious views of Mawali suppressed in exchange for higher social status. Hence the Sufi circles have never really had any regard for Islam.
717 Umar II
In a Letter Sent to the Omeyade Calif Umar II, Leo III the Isaurian wrote :
"It was ‘Umar, Abu Turab and Salman the Persian who composed your Furqan, even though the rumour has got around among you that God sent it down from the heavens…. As for your [Book], you have already given us examples of such falsifications and one knows among others of a certain Hajjaj, named by you as governor of Persia, who had men gather your ancient books, which he replaced by others composed by himself according to his taste and which he disseminated everywhere in your nation, because it was easier by far to undertake such a task among a people speaking a single language. From this destruction, nonetheless, there escaped a few of the works of Abu Turab, for Hajjaj could not make them disappear completely."
This may be why Ali and Salman are so important to the Alawaites. This may also explain why he is said to have translated the Quran into Persian, thus becoming the first person to interpret and translate the Quran into a foreign language. Perhaps in reality the existence of the Quran in Persian was simply explained away by accrediting him as the translator. He is buried in Old Medina.
It seems that Leo III made serious investigations about the Quran. He may have gained his knowledge from the Paulicians of Genesius Timothy whom he protected. He identified key companions by name , and he even knew that Hajjaj The General of Abdel Malik Ibn Marwan intoduced some changes to the Quran, a fact attested in muslim sources like "The Book of Masahif" of Ibn Abi Dawood.
The only way that the Umayyad caliph Umar II could respond to debate was by dismissing the Bible as corrupt and prohibiting Nestorians from studying the Islamic Quran.
John of Maron worked hard to convert the Maronites to dyothelitism and a brief period of Antiochene Eastern Catholic unity followed him until ultimately, in the the 740s, the Eastern Catholic Patriarchy of Antioch decisively split into Maronites and Melkites.
Continuatio Byzantia Arabica reference to Makah in desert between Carra and Al-Kaldiya.
According to Theophanes, part of the Paulicians of Armenia were moved to Thrace, in 747, to strengthen the Bulgarian frontier with a reliable population. They grew to assist Godfrey of Bouillon as the "Publicani" during the Crusades and even establish their own Primate Basil I of Bulgaria in 1186 to crown Asena I and consecrate their "Church of St. Demetrius" in Tarnovo.
750 The Umayyad Retreat
The Abbasids did their best to eradicate any Umayyad legacy. Unwelcome by the Abbasid Exilarch Solomon eldest son of the exilarch Ḥasdai I, many proto-Karaite Umayyads attempted to preserve themselves from the Abbasid wrath in a plethora of odd sects (Sadducees, Boethusians, Ananites, Isunians, Yudghanites, ‘Ukabarites, Mishawites, etc.) while the Judeo-Islamic Umayyads and their Mahamad continued to rule in Cordoba, Spain until the year 1030. The Judeo-Sufi dynasty of Maimonides also arose in Cordoba. Early Spanish copies of the Quran might expose differences between the Umayyad Qurans and the Abbasid Qurans.
781 Timothy I of Baghdad
Nestorian Catholics Timothy I of Baghdad provides us with perhaps the first documented exegesis of the Abbasid Quran.
Many standard Islamic Doctrines seem to have emerged as attempts to respond to Timothy's exegesis.
Was the Author Persian?
- Persian forms of the names of Biblical figures such as Jesus (Ieso) and John (Yahia) taken from Mandaic.
- Chinese sources about the Persian leader of the Tashih (Tayyaye/Tachk/Tajik).
- Chinese sources about the Persian leader of the DaShi.
- Corroboration on Tashih as Tachkastan (Land of the Tayyaye/Tajiks) from Sebeos.
- Origin of the name Tachkastan from Tayyaye (Tashih/Tachk/Tajik).
- Corroboration from Thomas the Presbyter on Tayyaye (Tashih/Tachk/Tajik) connection.
- Pronunciation of final D as T.
- Tentative connection of the term Banu Quraysh to Sassanians (Bnei Koreish).
- Relevance of coup activities of the Kurdish Pahlavi faction.
- Connection of the word Sacacen to Kurds and Kurds Parton origins to Siraces.
- Aramaic words in the Quran and possible Aramaic original materials which were used in the Quran.
- Monophysite Christology in the Quran corroborating the Palau Faction's connection to Monophysites
- Arrival of the Arabian Nabi in Medina (the Negev of Beersheba or Wadi Rafidain) as an outsider from the Quraysh of Hira.
- Judaization among Umayyads (Hagarenes) demands knowledge of Jewish communities which were mainly in Persia at the time.
- Ruqiya (Mandaic style incantations)
- The verse "Romans have been defeated" alongside use of Drahma suggests that the author/audience laments the loss of their trade partners and no mention of Sassanians in the Quran is therefore suspicious. (UNLESS taming of Quraysh refers to paying tribute to Kurdish Pahlavi.)
- If the Quran was revealed in Quraysh, why did Zaiyd ibn Thabit have to translate it into Quraysh UNLESS he was trying to change the meaning of the word Quraysh to refer to his own clan?
- Quran was most popular in Kufa (Yufen) where they rejected later Hadith as the Quran commands.
- Kufa was the center of Mukhtar's Mawali.
- Kufic may be older than Hijazi.
- Zubayr introduces Black Stone worship in Makah to impress Nabateans.
Judging by the evidence, the author(s) of the original Quranic materials was(were) most certainly Parthian.
Did the Narrative change?
Foreign teacher Narrative
- The language of the man opponents say is the real teacher of the Quran is called Ajami.
- Pope Martin
- Sebeos mentions an "on high command"
The Umayyad Sword Narrative
- Doctrina Yacobi "a Prophet does not come with a sword".
- Chinese source 2
- Hananisho it is a religion of the sword not divine revelation.
Sword and Text Narrative
- Chinese source 1
Book Miracle Narrative
- John of Damascus
833 Ibn Hisham's Islamic narrative
- God's Messenger the Angel Gabriel revealed a recitation to a man called Muhammad chosen by God to be his Prophet and Messenger.
The Abbasids began to promote Father Kabsha's Son as their Messiah and changed his title to Mohamed. But to do so they had to diminish the importance of the Gnostic Messiah and in doing so a new religion was born.