Huns

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The Huns (singular: Kun/Hun/On/Un, meaning "Ten", plural: Kunok/Hunuk/Onoq/Unug, also simply meaning "People") considered themselves to be the "Fist of God", the "Hammer of God", the "Scourge of God" and descendants of the lost "Ten" Tribes of Israel. They were a major component in the proto-Turkic hordes. They organised themselves in Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western camps each corresponding to one of four colours Black, Red, White, and Blue respectively.

The earliest known Hun rulers were Touman (240–209 BC) and Maodun (209–174 BC). When Ban Chao attacked the Xiongnu, Bei Shan-Yu (89–91 CE), migrated to the Caspian depression and his Hunnoi are first mentioned by Tacitus as being near the Caspian Sea in 91 CE. By CE 139, the geographer Ptolemy writes that the "Huni" (Χοῦνοι or Χουνοἰ) are between the Bastarnae and the Rhoxolani in the Pontic area under the rule of Suni. He lists the beginning of the 2nd century, although it is not known for certain if these people were the Huns. It is possible that the similarity between the names "Huni" (Χοῦνοι) and "Hunnoi" (Ουννοι) is only a coincidence considering that while the Western Roman Empire often wrote Chunni or Chuni, the Byzantine Empire never used the guttural Χ at the beginning of the name.[1]

By the late 4th century CE Balamber the Kushan had forced them into the southern Ural region where the majority stayed gradually establishing the Finnic areas of Europe and Russia. Humber the "Nordic" Hun who raided Britain was one of their descendants. Only a small fraction of the Uralic Huns actually moved with the Kushans into European Scythia as the Hunugurs (modern Örség). According to the Byzantine History of Priscus, while the hunters of this tribe (Hunor and Magor sons of Nimrod son of Tana) were as usual seeking game on the far bank of Lake Maeotis (Caspian Sea), they saw a deer appear unexpectedly before them and enter the swamp (Volga Delta), leading them on as a guide of the way, now advancing and now standing still. The hunters followed it on foot and crossed the Maeotic swamp (Volga Delta), which they had thought was as impassable as the sea. When Maeotia, the unknown Scythian land of the Alans appeared, the deer disappeared. The Huns, who had been completely ignorant that any other world existed beyond the Maeotic swamp, were filled with admiration of the Scythian country, and, since they were quick of mind, believed that the passage, familiar to no previous age, had been shown to them by God. They returned to their own people, told them what had happened, and persuaded them to follow along the way which the deer, as their guide, had shown them. They hastened to Scythia. Soon they crossed the huge swamp and like some tempest overwhelmed the various tribes of the Alans' Dula to become the 5 Dulo (咄陆) Crimean Hun (Kerami/Kermikhiones) tribes of Kidara.[2] This is the basis of both the Hungarian legend of Hunor and Magor inn the Gesta Ungarorum and Chronicon Pictum as well as the Bulgarian legend of the Martenitsa recorded by Vasil Stanilov.

The most famous of their clans was the Simeon tribe of the Southern "Red" Kidara or Kermikhiones to which belonged the Great Gahan Bulan of the Khazars who is generally regarded as the founder of Turanian Karaism after he was converted by Isaac Sangari of Khwarezm. Genghis Khan devastated them in an attempt to establish himself as their Chief Priest before he was struck by lightning. In Mediaeval times the Huns were known as Cumans, then after the enlightenment, they were generally known as Polovtsi. Their modern descendants are represented by the speakers of Kipchak languages mostly belong to the Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a meaning that all other R1a people of Eastern Europe also descend from the Polovtsi.

Their religion was Turanian Karaism.

List of Xiongnu Chanyus

NB Chanyu names do not always obey Chinese convention
Chinese name Pinyin/Wade-Giles Guangyun Personal Name Reign Note
Touman (頭曼單于/头曼单于) tóumàn/ t'ou-man 240–209 BC
Maodun (冒頓單于/冒顿单于) mòudùn / mou-tun 209–174 BC a.k.a. Batur (Baγatur) [3]
Laoshang (老上單于/老上单于) lǎoshàng / lao-shang 174–161 BC
Gunchen (軍臣單于/军臣单于) jūnchén / chün-ch'en 161–126 BC
Ichise (伊稚斜單于/伊稚斜单于) yīzhìxié / i-chih-hsieh 126–114 BC
Uwei ( 烏維/ 乌维) 114–105 BC
Ushylu (兒單于/儿单于) ( 烏師廬/乌师庐) 105–102/101 BC "Err Chanyu" (underage) [4]
Guilihu ( 呴犛湖/ 呴犁湖) 102/101–101/100 BC
Chedi (且鞮侯) ( 且鞮侯) 101/100–96 BC a.k.a. Quidi, Chedihou
Hulugu (狐鹿姑單于/狐鹿姑单于) húlùgū / hu-lu-ku 96–85 BC
Huandi (壺衍鞮單于/壺衍鞮单于) húyǎndī / hu-yen-ti 85–68 BC
Hyuilui-Juankui (虛閭權渠單于/虚闾权渠单于) xūlǘquánqú / hsü-lü-ch'üan-ch'ü 68–60 BC
Uyan-Guidi (握衍朐鞮單于/握衍朐鞮单于) wòyǎnqúdī / wo-lu-ch'ü-ti ( 屠耆堂/ 屠耆堂) 60–58 BC
Huhanye (呼韓邪單于/呼韩邪单于) hūhánxié / hu-han-hsieh Giheushyan [5]
( 稽侯狦)
58 – 31 BC
屠耆單于, 58–56 BC
呼揭單于, 57 BC
車犂單于, 57–56 BC
烏籍單于, 57 BC
閏振單于, 56–54 BC
Zhizhi Chanyu 郅支單于, 55 – 36 BC
伊利目單于, 49 BC
Fujulei [6]
(復株纍若鞮單于/复株累若鞮单于)
fùzhūléiruòdī/fu-chu-lei-je-ti Dyaotao-mogao [7]
( 彫陶莫皋/ 雕陶莫皋)
31–20 BC "Jodi" in Hunnic means "respectful to parents" [8]
Seuxie [9]
(搜諧若鞮單于/搜谐若鞮单于)
Juimixui [10]
( 且麋胥)
20–12 BC Title Jodi-Chanyu
Guia [11]
(車牙若鞮單于/车牙若鞮单于)
Juimigui [12]
( 且莫車/挛鞮 且莫车)
12–8 BC Title Jodi-Chanyu
Uchjulu [13] (烏珠留若鞮單于/乌珠留若鞮单于) Nengzhiyasi [14]
( 囊知牙斯)
8 BC – 13 AD Title Jodi-Chanyu
Ulei Hyan [15] (烏累若鞮單于/乌累若鞮单于) ( 鹹/挛鞮 咸) 13–18 AD Title Jodi-Chanyu
Yui [16] (呼都而尸道皋若鞮單于/呼都而尸道皋若鞮单于) ( 輿/挛鞮 舆) 18–46 AD
Wudadi-hou [17] Wudadi (烏達鞮侯/乌达鞮侯) 46 AD

Northern Xiongnu (北匈奴)

Chinese name Pinyin/Wade-Giles Guangyun Personal Name Reign Note
Punu (蒲奴) Punu 46–48 AD
Youliu [18] (優留) Youliu  ?–87 AD
Bey/Bi (北單于) Běi Chányú 88–? AD
Yuchujian [19] (於除鞬單于) Yuchujian 91–93 AD
Feng-hou (逢侯) Feng, a.k.a. Finghey 94–118 AD

Hun Rulers

Chinese name Data Personal Name Reign
Hu, Han-Sie/Hanxie (呼, 韓邪)
Di II (第二) 醢落尸逐鞮
a.k.a. Bey/Bi (KhuKheniy II) of the East partition
brought the southern Xiongnu into tributary relations
with Han China in AD 50
48–56/55 AD
Chiu-Fu Yu-Ti
(丘浮 尤提)
Chupu-NoTi 55/56–56/57 AD
I-Fa Wu Yu-Ti
(伊伐 於 慮提)
 ??? 56/57–59 AD
XienTung ShiSuQuTi
(醢僮 尸逐侯提)
Shtongsi SuyGhuTi 59–63 AD

丘除車林提
Kuchi QilinTi 63 AD
HuYeh ShiSuQuTi
(湖邪 尸逐侯提)
Ghushi Shisu Quti 63–85 AD
I-Tu-Yi-Lu-Ti
(伊屠 於 閭提)
Iltu UluTi 85–88 AD
Tuntuhe [20] Siuan [21] XiuLan ShiSuQuTi (休蘭 尸逐侯提) Shulan 88–93 AD
Anguo [22]
(安國)
a.k.a. Arqu started a large scale rebellion against
the Han
93–94 AD
Shizi-hou [23]
(尸逐)
Tindu ShiSuQuTi (亭獨 尸逐侯提) 94–98 AD
Wanchi ShiSuQuTi
(萬氏 尸逐侯提)
opposed by...
...Feng a.k.a. Finghey
98-124AD
98–118 AD
Wuzhi ShiSuQuTi
(烏稽 尸逐侯提)
 ??? 124–127/128 AD
Xiuli [24] Kuti NoShiSuChin (去特 若尸逐就){cite}, committed suicide under Chinese pressure 127/128–140/142?
Cheniu [25] Chu-Xiu ???{cite}, popularly elected not from Hunnic dynastic lines 140–143 AD
Deuleuchu [26] Ghoran, Hu, Lan NoShiSuChin (呼, 蘭 若尸逐就){cite}, pin. Touluchu,[27] puppet fictitious appointee at the Chinese court 143–147 AD
Guiguir [28] Illin, I-Ling NoShiSuChin (伊陵 若尸逐就){cite}, pin. Jucheer;[29] puppet Chinese appointee that escaped Chinese control; incarcerated by Chinese in 158 AD 147–158 AD (d. 172 AD)
Tude-joshy-zhuogu [30] Dotuk NoShiSuChin (屠特 若尸逐就){cite}, a.k.a. Utno Shisu Quti 158–178 AD
Huzheng [31] (呼, 徵) a.k.a. Hu, Ching; Ghuzhin 178–179 AD
Qiangqui
(羌渠)
a.k.a. Qiangquy, Qiangqu,[32] Jiangqu; killed in Xiuchuge Huns rebellion 179–188 AD
Yufuluo
(於扶羅)
a.k.a. Qizi ShiSuQu (特至 尸逐侯){cite}. The last ShiSu.
Homeless puppet Chanyu, overthrown in the Ordos by the unnamed Chanyu of
Xiluo 醯落 and Tu'ge 屠各. Led dozens of refugee
Xiongnu tribes to Pingyang (平阳) in Shanxi.
188–195 AD
Huchuquan (呼廚泉) Yufuluo's brother,[33] he ruled over the Pingyang Xiongnu
after Yufuluo died.
195–215/6 AD
Punu (蒲奴) Punu 46–48 AD
Youliu [34] (優留) Youliu  ?–87 AD
Bey/Bi (北單于) Běi Chányú 88–? AD
Yuchujian [35] (於除鞬單于) Yuchujian 91–93 AD
Feng-hou (逢侯) Feng, a.k.a. Finghey 94–118 AD
  • Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Thompson1996
  • Priscus, Byzantine History, fragment 10.
  • Hirth F. Sinologische Beitrage zur Geschichte der Turk-Volker. Die Ahnentafel Attila's nach Johannes von Thurocz. Bull. Imp. Acad, series V, vol. XIII, 1900, No 2, pp. 221–261.
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 46
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 59
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 107
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 86
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 87
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 87
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, p. 87
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", Australian National University Faculty of Asian Studies Monographs, New Series No.4, Canberra 1984, [1]
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", vol. 1, Sankt Petersburg, 1851, p. 105–107
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 108–109
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 130–134
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 144
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  • Bichurin N.Ya., "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145
  • R. de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, 1984
  • Bichurin N.Ya., Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times, 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145 (True name unknown; the Chinese moniker has negative connotation; confirmed by Chinese Court as Chanyu in 172 AD)
  • Bichurin N.Ya., Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times, 1851, vol. 1, pp. 145
  • R. de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, 1984
  • R. de Crespigny, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, 1984
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984
  • R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", 1984