How to become a Noahite
The Talmud, and codified by Maimonides, it is written that it is not sufficient for a non-Jew to just keep the seven laws in order to "have a portion in the world to come".
As Maimonides says:
- Everyone who accepts the seven commandments and is careful to perform them – this person is of the Chasidei Umos HaOlam, and he has a portion in the world to come. He accepts them and performs them because they were commanded by the Kodosh Baruch Hu revealed to us by the hand of Moshe Rabbenu that the Bnei Noah were previously commanded in these things.
He also says:
- One who accepts these [basic laws] is called: Ger Toshav in every place, and he must accept [these laws] on himself in front of three judges. And all who have taken upon themselves to circumcise, and twelve months have past without circumcision – this person becomes like other nations [who have not accepted the Noahide laws].
A translation of Maimonides may be found here. (Please remember when reading other laws of Maimonides that he is only one authority, and other great Rabbis have given their opinions. Not all of Maimonides opinions have been accepted as halacha).
Are You a Noahide Already?
All of humanity are 'children of Noah' by definition, so the question is really "are you an observant Noahide?" (i.e. one who is promised a share in the world to come).
One answer is that many religions and legal systems come very close to qualifying as living up to the Noahide standard, but fall short on a few areas. So by supplementing or reforming an existing faith, one may live up to the Noahide requirements. Some Rabbis are of the opinion that reforming and correcting existing national faiths is the highest form of Noahide. For example Aime Palliere, a Noahide taught by Rabbi Elijah Benamozegh remained a Roman Catholic, continued going to church, and apparently continued to take the Eucharist (albeit with a modifed intepretation).
Alternatively, another approach is join with one of the many communities of Noahides worldwide. These communities are best for people who have fallen out with establish religion and wish to take on some of the Jewish customs. Some Rabbis are of the opinion existing religions are beyond repair, or that Noahides are forbidden from creating a religion. They feel that taking on a voluntary set of customs, untainted by idolatry, is the highest form of Noahide.
How to become a Noahide
To become an observant Noahide is to be assured of a 'portion in the world to come' by entering into a covenant with G-d, of which the Jewish people are also a part. It is to enter into a recognized relationship with the Jewish people, rather being completely outside of any legal system recognized by Judaism.
The requirements are generally considered:
- To recognize the covenant that already has been made
- To become part of one of 'seventy' legal systems
- And to accept the Rabbinic interpretation of scripture
Once one makes this step, the 'size' of one's portion in the world to come is determined by prayer, repentance, good deeds and good character. This may sound very similar to the teaching of other religions, particularly within the Abrahamic tradition, and it should be so. Judaism teaches that the Noahide covenant is the foundation of any proper society and religion.
According to Rabbinic tradition, the best way to mark the decision to become a part of the Noahide Covenant is to make a declaration.
The Noahide Declaration
A Noahide declaration should include these points.
To be a Chasidei Umos HaOlam, Righteous Gentile:
- Accept the seven commandments
- Be careful to perform them (that is in all their subdivisions and details, including dinim - the laws of the courts)
- Because they were commanded by G-d
- Revealed to us by the hand of Moshe Rabbenu (through Rabbinic tradition)
- Were previously commanded in these things (reconnecting with the previous ancient law & covenant)
To be a Ger Toshav, Partial Convert
- He must accept [these laws] on himself in front of three judges.
- This is in "every place", which I believe means local judges anywhere in the world.
One must remember that unlike 'conversion' to Christianity or Islam, the Noahide declaration is not a conversion process. It is not marked with some right of passage, nor with some interrogation of proper dogma or belief.
Rather it is a declaration of intent to uphold the seven laws and their details, to become part of the jurisdiction of his/her nation's Noahide courts, and acceptance of the authority of Rabbinic tradition in these matters.
Becoming a Noahide or Converting to Judaism
As far as becoming an observant Noahide or converting to Judaism goes, these are two very different paths. Besides the obvious differences, there is the question of legal jurisdiction. A convert intends to be under the complete authority of the Jewish court of law as interpreted by the Jewish court system. A Noahide must place himself under the authority of his nations' Noahide courts, and be a good national. Just as a convert should seek the welfare of the Jewish nation (as Ruth said "your people will be my people..."), a Noahide should seek the welfare of his nation. In the Talmud (Bava Kama 38a), it is written that like the Jews, the Noahide nations have also been sent into exile because they didn't keep their part of the covenant. Some understand this to mean that they must find themselves and who they are. Like the Jews, they too have a mission and purpose in this world.
Which 'Nation' do you belong to?
There are those that claim that it is important that a Noahide declares the court system he/she is following, in addition to his pledge of upholding the seven laws. This is because it is impossible to uphold the Imperative of Legal System without belonging to a legal system.
Rabbi Yaakov Anatoli (1194-1256) in HaMelamed put it this way:
- When the Noahites were enjoined concerning Justice, they were put under obligation to create legal arrangements .... It is incumbent on the judges to draw up rules of equity that shall be appropriate for that particular country, as exemplified by the manner in which this matter is handled currently by the nations, severally. Likewise, it is incumbent upon merchants and upon the members of the trades to establish regulations for themselves... and whatever emerges as the law in this manner is law, as much as that which is written in the Bible. Furthermore, anyone violating this law violates Scripture, because Scripture commands the individual to accept the decisions of the contemporary jurists. The dictum, "The law of the land is the Law," relates to this concept.
Finding a Noahide Court
Have you contacted Chabad in your area? They are usually open to Noahide issues.
Is it possible for you to travel to Jerusalem to meet with the Jerusalem Court for Bnei Noah?
Is it possible to assemble a Beis Din of observant Jews in your area to listen to your declaration?
There are some rabbinic opinions that one must observe the Seven Laws as a binding legal requirement. For Noahides in the United States, one way to do this is to register with the the United Noachide Council. The UNC functions as a complementary court system to the United States court system, and is registered to handle certain legal cases. The intention is to allow a Noahide to fulfill the Noahide Covenant and in all your ways know G-d(Proverbs 3:6). The idea being that even something as simple as stopping for a red traffic light, when done with the correct intention, can be a mitvah with spiritual reward.
Please fill out the following information and send it to the UNC:
The UNC is working in other countries to set up complementary court systems, to make up for the lack where those countries legal systems have fallen short of the basic requirements for the proper functioning of society and religion.
- Mishne Torah: Laws of Kings 8:11
- Mishne Torah: Laws of Kings 8:10
- Rabbi Yosef Gikkitila, Rabbi Nathaniel ibn Fayumi, Rabbi Ovadiah Seforno, Rabbi Menachem Meiri, Rabbi Yaakov Emden, Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, Rabbi Henry Pereira Mendes, Rabbi Israel Lipschutz, Rabbi Elijah Benamozegh and Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz
- "The Unknown Sanctuary" by Aime Palliere.
- Rabbi Shlomo ben Yitzhak (Rashi), Maimonides, Rabbi Yehudah ben Betzalel Loewe (Maharal), Rabbi Zevi Yehudah Kook, Rabbi Isaac Luria, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (Chabad), Rabbi Yoel Schwartz
- Some rabbinic authorities disagree that this is a requirement
- Maimonides holds that the declaration is only required for a Ger Toshav. He holds that Ger Toshav only applies to those who live in Israel under a sovereign Jewish (Torah) State, others disagree. According to many authorities, there is value to the declaration of a person before a rabbinical court even outside of Israel.
- Quoted by Reuben Margolioth, Margolioth Hayarn. Jerusalem: Mosad Harav Kook, 1958, volume 11, page 20. (Sanhedrin 56b, section 9.)