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Main article Judaism and Other Religions

In Wikinoah, we attempt to present a range of traditional and authentic opinions concerning Noahidism and Noahide faith(s) within halakhic Judaism. To highlight the different approaches a selection of Rabbis have been chosen with an aim of highlighting the widest array of opinions, for the purpose of beginning discussion; this is not designed to be either a complete anthology of approaches, or a definitive word on categorizing the authories on this subject. The intention is to give us the language to distinguish and describe approaches, websites, groups, and leaders.

Why is this important?

The way halakhic Judaism views non-Jewish nations is of fundamental importance when trying to understand how to approach our national customs and faiths. Are our native traditions obstacles to the advancement of Noachide teachings (Exclusivist), are they neutral awaiting the illumination of Torah (Inclusivist), or they distorted truths awaiting reform (Universalist/Pluralist)? Do the non-Jewish nations have a subsidiary role to play in the process of world-redemption (Hierarchical) or do we have our own equally important role (Collective)? Is it best to approach Noachide teachings through the lens of rationalism (Historical-Mission) or spiritually (Metaphysical)? Is Noahidism one faith or many faiths? Is it built from the ground up, adding fulfilling traditions to the Seven Laws? Or perhaps from the top down, judging and filtering existing faiths & traditions through the lens of the Seven Laws? Within halakhic Judaism various Rabbinic authorities have approached this problem from several angles.

How the approaches are categorized

The sources we will be examining need to be categorized in multiple dimensions; to divide them simply between “pro-dialogue” and “anti-dialogue” would be to erase their richness. The most obvious of these dimensions is that which categorizes positions as exclusivist, inclusivist, or pluralistic.


Let me explain. For the exclusivist, one's own community, tradition, and encounter with G-d is the one and only exclusive truth; all other claims on encountering G-d are a priori false. Judaism is the sole path to G-d; those who are not Jews are at best bystanders in the Divine scheme, and at worst antagonists. This view can be found in some Talmudic texts and in many later commentators. Some renowned authorities in this category are: Rabbi Shlomo ben Yitzhak (Rashi), some readings of Maimonides, Rabbi Yehudah ben Betzalel Loewe (Maharal), Rabbi Zevi Yehudah Kook, Rabbi Isaac Luria, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn.

For the exclusivist, the other religions are simply false. There is no broader, outside world whose claims need to be harmonized and addressed; there is only the realm of the “other side.” While this position may be at odds with ethical (and therefore universal) sensitivities, it plays a powerful sociological role for groups who feel embattled and threatened by the majority culture.


For the inclusivist, other religions are explained by his own religion. All humanity is beloved by G-d and chosen from amongst all creation. As Zephaniah has prophecied, the nations will in messianic times all call upon G-d. The distinction between Israel and the nations is the presence – or absence – of the Sinai revelation. All have the image of G-d, but the Sinai experience is only for Jews. He acknowledges a world outside his own, but relies on his own worldview to make it comprehensible and give it meaning. He speaks the language of his own theology, and uses its vocabulary to describe outsiders. Some renowned authorities in this category are: Rabbi Yehudah Halevi, some readings of Maimonides, Rabbi Yosef Gikkitila, Rabbi Ovadiah Seforno, Rabbi Yaakov Emden, Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, and Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook.

In this, he differs from the pluralist, who will address others in their own language. The pluralist can be criticized for trying to step outside his own religious language rather than pushing its boundaries, but can be admired for naming others in their own terms.


The pluralist accepts that truth is not in the possession of any one tradition, understanding religion as a way of approaching, rather than defining and naming, G-d. He accepts his limitations in understanding the wider world and believes G-d is present and active within the world. Some renowned authorities in this category are: Rabbi Yosef Gikkitila, some readings of Maimonides, Rabbi Nathaniel ibn Fayumi, Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, Rabbi Henry Pereira Mendes, Rabbi Israel Lipschutz, Rabbi Elijah Benamozegh, Rabbi Nachman of Breslov and Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz.


The irrelevantist considers other faith communities as religions worthy of tolerance without a theory of other religions. Although this approach is not particularly useful for understanding Noahidism, it deserves mention because is the most common approach of halakhic Jews today. Some renowned authorities in this category are: Rabbi Menachem Meiri, and Rabbi Joseph Soloveitchik.

Each of the above can be sub-categorized


Judaism has a messianic mission to spread the doctrine of monotheism throughout the world. The monotheistic religions of the other nations both reflect the success of the mission until now, and play a role in the mission’s continued advance toward the messianic age. It transforms the millennia of Diaspora into part of the redemptive progress of history, with all that entails for remembering and feeling the pains accumulated along the way.


Non-Jewish nations finds themselves not as part of a historical progression, but in the metaphysical realm. Other religions will be seen not as means of bringing individuals or nations to monotheism but as performing a metaphysical role. In this, it might be a particularly useful basis for discussions with metaphysically-inclined Noahide nations; For example a mutual encounter with the Greek Orthodox Noahides concerning theories of Divine glory, blessings and energies. However, metaphysical models are limited in their utility in an era where few embrace, or even understand, metaphysical language.


Israel is a chosen people, who transforms the world. Other religions share a common root of Judaism; all religions are of the same tree with Judaism as the trunk. The religions are not needed for Jewish self-understanding, but to fail to recognize the nature of the branch religions is to fail to properly understand the world. Jews are to be rol ... \n

A Sisters Deathless Legacy of Love

After living through an experimental cancer treatment my sister Barb was left unable to work. When she was offered the opportunity to do a mission trip in India if she could come up with $3,000 - she was left thinking there was no way she could go. No way to raise the funds. She asked me to brainstorm with her as to ways she could raise money. "The only thing I can do is hug," she told me - and thus her adventure began.

[A Sisters Deathless Legacy of Love]

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Bangladesh rickshaw puller starts clinic for the poor

Joynal Abedin still remembers the rainy and windy night when he saw his father die because there was no medical treatment. His village in the northern Mymensingh district of Bangladesh did not have any medical facility at that time, and the nearest hospital was about 20km (12 miles) away.

[Bangladesh rickshaw puller starts clinic for the poor]

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Discovering My Own Values

At the end of your life a friend once asked, What do you hope to have happened? I thought it a great question and decided to give him a thoughtful answer, so I pocketed it for later and bought myself a month for the assignment. For a while my mind flooded with questions of plot.

[Discovering My Own Values]

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Meet The New Boss: You

What do coffee growers in Ethiopia, hardware store owners in America, and Basque entrepreneurs have in common? For one thing, many of them belong to cooperatives. By pooling their money and resources, and voting democratically on how those resources will be used, they can compete in business and reinvest the benefits in their communities.

[Meet The New Boss: You]

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7 Ways to Deal With the Death of a Loved One

How do you deal with death, the loss of a loved one when the pain is so strong; how can you let go of the people you once loved and still love so much; how can you accept the fact that you will never see those people ever again? How can you accept the idea of loss, of death?

[7 Ways to Deal With the Death of a Loved One]

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