Theosebeia

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(Θεο)σεβεια

Theosebeia (θεοσεβεια) Genesis 20:11 Job 28:28 Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) 1:25. 4 Maccabees 17:15
Theosebeias (θεοσεβειας) Baruch 5:4
Theosebeian (θεοσεβειαν) 4 Maccabees 7:6, 7:22 1 Timothy 2:10
Theosebis (θεοσεβης) Job 1:1, 1:8, 2:3 Judith 11:17 4 Maccabees 16:12 John 9:31
Theosebeis (θεοσεβεις) Exodus 18:21
Theosebous (θεοσεβους) 4 Maccabees 15:28
Sebomenoi (σεβομενοι) Wisdom of Solomon 15:6 Prayer of Azariah 1:68 (Daniel 3:90) 3 Maccabees 3:4
Sebomenois (σεβομενοις) Isaiah 66:14. Prayer of Azariah 1:10 (Daniel 3:33) Odes 7:8 (7:33) Acts 17:17
Sebomenwn (σεβομενων) Acts 13:43 Acts 17:4
Sebomai (σεβομαι) Jonah 1:9. Bel and the Dragon 1:5.
Sebomenas (Σεβόμενας) Acts 13:50.
Sebomene (σεβομενη) Acts 16:14
Sebomenou (σεβομενου) Acts 18:7

Since there are no real coincidences, it is interesting to note the similarity between the sounds Theosebei and Thoshavi. Indeed Prato and Fratini have argued for an intentional comparative usage between the Greek root *σεβ and the Hebrew root *שב.

Yet while Θεοσεβεια can be clearly identified with strict monotheism, the "La ilaha il allah" of σεβεια alone appears to refer more to a kind of shittuf or imperfect monotheism rather like trinitariansm. It recognises the supremacy of a divine force "Ton Theon" or "Al-Lah", but it has not abandoned veneration of what are regarded as channels through which this force is revealed. This actually links σεβεια to صابئة or צבאות in Hebrew. All branches of σεβεια clearly had Messopotamian origins and reflect different cults of Enki. These were the Hindu-type of believer to whom Abraham was sent. The Magists had mixed their ideas with Buddhism. The Nasaraeans had mixed their ideas with Dualism. The Hodites had mixed their ideas with Judaism.

One branch of the Tsabians were King Herod's Hodites evicted from Jerusalem by the Romans. According to the Hodites of Mecca their scriptures stated that a Prophet would arise there who would bring about the dawn of a new aga and take them back to Jerusalem. "Synagogues" incorporating pagan motifs found all over the Holy Land are the last remnants of Herod's "Hodite" Tsabian community.

The most common form of σεβεια was a kind of syncretism. While the church draws a sharp distinction between Emperor Constantine and Julian the Apostate, there is no evidence that the religious beliefs of both men were not exactly the same. It is clear only that that their views on who exactly Jesus was differed, Constantine seeing him as an incarnation of Mithras, Julian seeing him as nothing but a 1st century Jewish teacher. Constantine was interested in bringing out Mithraic symbolism in rituals of Jewish origin, while Julian clearly respecting Jewish ritual saw no reason for syncretism and preferred not to blur the line between his own ethnic rituals and rituals of Jewish origin. This distinction makes Constantine the heretic from a Jewish perspective while Julian was firmly within Theosebeia even though his ritual observances were further away from Judaism.