As late as the fifteenth century, we find that R. Simeon ben Zemah Duran (''Tashbez'') ruled that Islam itself was not idolatrous.<ref>She'elot u-Teshuvot Tashbez, vol. 2, no. 48.</ref> but he also ruled that a shohet to was not permitted to slaughter animals while facing Mecca.<ref>Ibid., vol. 3, no. 133.</ref> because he regarded the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca as being of an idolatrous nature.<ref>Keshet u-Magen (Jerusalem, 1970), p. 19b.</ref> Of course, there is a difference between the view of the ''Tashbez'' and R. Nissim quoted above. Where the ''Tashbez'' was concerned with the remnants of the pre-Islamic period, R. Nissim's objection appears to be directed at what he considered to be pure Islam, not including any pre-Islamic pagan remnants.
R. Solomon ben Adret (c. 1235-c. 1310), ruled however, that although he regarded the practice as distasteful, would not prohibit.<ref>She'elot u-Teshuvot Rashba (Bnei Brak, 1984), vol. 1, no. 345. </ref> This view was supported by R. David ibn Zimra(''Radbaz''),<ref>She'elot u-Teshuvot Radbaz, no. 162. He also adds an economic argument to buttress his case.</ref> and it was also codified ruled as final halachah in the Shulhan Aruch.<ref>Yoreh Deah 4:7.</ref> However, none of these authorities quote a responsum by Maimonides, which agreed with the ''Tashbez''' position.<ref>See Azulai, Birkei Yosef, Yoreh Deah 4:3. See also Azulai, Mar'it ha-Ayin (Livorno, 1805), p. 79a, who notes that this responsum appears to be at odds with Maimonides' letter to Ovadiyah. This responsum does not appear in any of the collected responsa of Maimonides, and its authenticity is very questionable. See, however, R. Hayyim Benveniste, Keneset ha- Gedolah (Jerusalem, 1970), Yoreh Deah 4:14, that perhaps one must suffer martyrdom rather than accede to the Muslim demand.</ref>
Rabbi Yisrael MeShklov, one of the leading disciples of the Vilna Gaon, in his addendum to the Shulchan Aruch called ''Mappat HaShulchan'' considered a situation that went one step further, in that the Muslims insisted that the Jewish shohet acknowledge Allah by proclaiming "Allahu akbar" when he slaughtered. R. Abraham Isaac Kook, not able to point to any explicit prohibition in this matter, also ruled that it is permissible to repeat the formula.<ref>Da'at Kohen [Jerusalem, 1985], no. 10. Regarding this practice, see also P'ri Hadash, Yoreh Deah, 19:6.</ref>
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Islam and Noahite Law

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The Hajj, Facing Mecca and Shechitah

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