===Geonim===
Most of the ''rishonim '' held that Islam was not idolatry however they bring another factor into play. Due The Talmud gives another reason to prohibit the drinking of wine, the need to prevent socialization with the Muslims non- Jews,apparently even non-idolatrous Muslims - is given by the Talmud as a further reason to forbid consumption of their wine,ones.<ref>need source</ref> Based on this R. Zemah Gaon ruled that even though one could benefit from Muslim wine, it was still unfit to be drunk by a Jew.<ref>Hemdah Genuzah (Jerusalem, 1863), no. 114.</ref> Similar rulings were also made by Geonim Kohen Zedek,<ref>Joel Muller, ed., Halachot Pesukot min ha- Geonim (Cracow, 1893), no. 25.</ref> Sar Shalom,<ref>David Casell, ed., Teshuvot Geonim Kadmonim (Bnei Brak, 1986), no. 46.</ref> Nahshon,<ref>Simha Hasida, ed., Shibbolei ha-Leket (Jerusalem, 1988), Vol. 2, p. 20.</ref> and other important rabbonim.<ref>See the sources quoted by Hanoch Albeck in the notes to his edition of Sefer ha-Eshkol (Jerusalem, 1938), pp. 77-78.</ref> However, R' Yizhak Rafael in his Sefer ha-Manhig, ruled that such wine was permissible for drinking.<ref>See Yizhak Rafael, ed., Sefer ha-Manhig (Jerusalem, 1978), Vol. 2, p. 660, and Albeck, loc. cit. Rabbenu Nissim, She'elot u-Teshuvot R. Nissim ben Gerondi, ed. Kleon Feldman (Jerusalem, 1984), p. 45</ref> He says that "perhaps it is permissible" to drink Muslim wine in a setting not conducive to socializing. See also the sources quoted by R. Joseph Messas, <ref>Mayim Hayyim (Jerusalem, 1985), Vol. 2, Yoreh Deah, no. 66, </ref> where it is explained why certain authorities disregard the Geonic view that permits one only to obtain benefit from this wine but does not allow one to drink it. See esp. p. 159: "There is no unity [of G-d] like the unity found in Islam; therefore, one who forbids [drinking] wine which they have handled turns holy into profane by regarding worshippers of G-d as worshippers of idols, G-d forbid." <ref>See p. 159</ref> On the other hand , kabbalists like R. Joseph Hayyim, tried to show that Islamic monotheism was far removed from the monotheism of Judaism<ref>See, e.g., R. Joseph Hayyim, Da'at u-Tevunah (Jerusalem, 1965), pp. 25b-26a.</ref>
The basis for these rulings was the concensus of halachic opinion by the Gaonim that Islam as a religion was not to be regarded as idolaty. However, since all of these Geonim were concerned with a specific halachic issue, they did not rule on any of the larger questions which deal with the relation of Judaism to Islam. Althought Although the Geonic responsa in general which show great regard for Islamic civil law<ref>see H.Z. Hirschberg, "Archaot shel Goyim Biyemei ha-Geonim," in S.J. Zevin and Zerab Warhaftig, eds., Mazkeret (Jerusalem, 1962), pp. 493-506.</ref>
===Rishonim===
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