===Midrashim===
There was a widespread perception that an idol was to be found in the Kaaba. For example ''Midrash Lekah Tov '' regarded Mecca as the name of an Islamic Idolidol<ref>Midrash Lekah Tov (Jerusalem, 1960), Vol. 2, p. 250</ref> Based on this this R. Menahem Meiri, R. Abraham Sofer (son of the Hatam Sofer) and Sefer ha-Eshkol rule that it was forbidden to drink or even obtain benefit from wine handled by a Muslim. According to them, there was no difference in the halachic status of wine handled by a Muslim or an idolater.<ref>See R. Menahem Meiri, Bet ha-Behirah: Avodah Zarah, Abraham Sofer, ed. (Jerusalem, 1964), p. 214 (quoting R. Joseph ibn Migash), and Sefer ha-Eshkol, Z.B. Auerbach, ed. (Halberstadt, 1865), section 3, p. 150. (It should be noted that some scholars question the authenticity of this edition of Sefer ha-Eshkol.)</ref> See also Simhah Assaf,<ref>Simhah Assaf, ed., Teshuvot ha-Geonim (Jerusalem, 1929), no. 266,</ref> rules that wine handled by a Muslim is forbidden for use as if it was touched by a Christian. However, from the reason given in this responsum, one cannot conclude that a Muslim was viewed as an idolater. Nahmanides made a distinction between Muslim wine and Jewish wine which was touched by a Muslim. Some achronim like the Birkei Yosef<ref>R. Hayyim Joseph David Azulai, Birkei Yosef: Shiyure Berachah (Jerusalem, no date), Yoreh Deah 122: 1.</ref> and She'elot u-Teshuvot Tashbez<ref>R. Simeon ben Zemah Duran, She'elot u-Teshuvot Tashbez (Lemberg, 1891), vol. 2, no. 48</ref> ruled that the practice was not to receive any benefit from wine handled by a Muslim. In the ninth century, R. Zemah Gaon disagreed and ruled that a Jew was permitted to obtain benefit from wine with which a Muslim came into contact.
===Geonim===
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Islam and Noahide Law

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Midrashim

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