'''Karaimite Sabbatarianism''' or Karaimism, (also spelled Karaimism, Qaraimizm, Karaimizm, Caraimizm or Caraimism) is the correct translation of '''Караимство''' a Russian religion which literally means Karaim-ization. It refers to the adoption of certain ways of the OldJudeans (староиудеями) like Lithuanian Karaites and Crimean Karaites as either circumcised [[Karaims]] (Караимы) or uncircumcised [[Karaimites]] (Караимиты) -a missionary term<ref>"Overview of Russian sects and persuasions" by T.J. Boutkevitch pages 382-384</ref>- without actually becoming either. People who practice Karaimism are not called Karaims but called Karaimites or Karaitizers ('''Караимствующие''')<ref>[hca.ge/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/bulletin5_ru.pdf РУССКИЙ КЛЮЧ (Русский мессианизм: истоки, смысл, перспективы) Юрий СИЛАЕВ]</ref>. Under the Russian authorities, Karaimizers who fully Karaimized were called Russian Karaims (Русские Караимы) but may more accurately be called Sabbatarian-Karaims (Субботников-Караимов) if circumcised or Sabbatarian-Karaimites (Субботники-Караимиты) if not.
The Karaimites are a "Priestess Old Believer" sect of Tatar Subbotniks considered as "Old Jews" (староиудеями) by the Russian Imperial Church which noted they were settled in Vilno, Volinia, Lutsk, Kovno, Kherson, and the Taurida south of Simferopol. There were about 250 in the Polish republic and 800 around Trokai. The Karaimite Religious Union was recognized as a Church by the second Polish Republic and traces of Karaimites could also be found in Sejny. They practice a Judaized religion inspired by the Romaniote Karaite Minhag of Constantinople but they are distinct from Karaite Jews. They have been described as an ancient, local Lithuanian -Moslem ethnic and religious community. The Tsar's army did not consider them Jews and 15 mentioned serving. Marian Feldman did not consider them to be Jews. They used the Hebrew alphabet and a Kanesa they had in the ancient town of Chufut Kale has preserved a plaque illustrating their use of the Hebrew alphabet to write in their own language . Despite such exceptions, they are also sometimes referred to as Iudei in which case they would only constitute one Two Thousandths of the world Jewry. Circucumcision is not practiced among the laity and is reserved only for their Ministers who must be considered Jewish. They emerged from the gradual Judaization of a Molokan type of Alevi known as Keraites. They were formally allowed to establish a community under Isaac Boguslav Zaxarovich Kaplanovsky in 1868 having been inspired by Avraham Firkovich. They used the Порядок караимов by Avraham Firkovich Vilna 1870 (a redacted version by Nehemiah Gordon and Moshe Dabbah is view-able online) which was in turn based on the Siddur tefillot ke-minhag ha-Karaim by Isaak ben Solomon Ickowicz.
It was re-published for more Karaimites as the "Порядок молитв для караимов by Avraham Samoilovich Firkovich" in 1882 and again by Feliksas Maleckis as the "Порядок молитв для караимов, составленный вкратце гахамом и главным учителем караимов Авраамом Самойловичем Фирковичем. Перевод И. Б. Н. Фиркович" -Order of Prayers for Karaims translated by Isaac Boguslaw Nisanovich Firkovich, 2 vols Tsaritsyn (Volgograd) E.N. Fedorov 1892, 1896 and 1901.