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'''Karaimites''' or '''Karaimite-Subbotniks''' or '''Subbotnik Karaimites''' better known simply as '''Subbotniks''' are a historical Messianic Noahite group in the [[Tosafists]] approach overseen by the [[Subbotnik Jews]] of [[Judah ben Tabbai]]'s Yerushalmi Palestinian Minhag which due to their disinterest in the Babylonian Talmud's interpretation of the Bible were named after a remnant of Persia's Qara'im in Isafan with whom they established a relationship somewhere in the forgotten past. Karaimites are not [[Karaimite Jews]]just as Russians are not Russian Jews. Karaimites practice a much Judaized sort of Christian religion preserving the Lord's Prayer while, notably, also respecting a version of the Quran. Many were fully converted to Subbotnik Jews following the Romaniote Jewish Palestinian Minhag of Constantinople which was published in the Austrian Empire. The origins of Karaimism are obscure but seem to have begun with the part-Karaimite [[Karimi]] merchants. Karaimites were the "Children of Scripture" the so called "Karaites" of Old Russia. There are three notable stages in the development of the Karaimite-Subbotnik community which suffered from a socialist revolution in the 1930s-40s resulting in two rival sects when Secularized Sadducean Socialist [[Crimean Karaites]] sought to eradicate the Karimi-Karaitizer supporters of the Real Karaimite/Karaim/Subbotnik leaders.
From the beginning of the nineteenth century the Molokan-Subbotniks started professing a type of Messianic Judaism which did not recognize the authority of the Talmud and was somewhat similar to that of the Karaites so became known as the russkie karaimy or karaimity. In 1892, Bogusław Firkowicz published a Russian translation of Hebrew prayers collected by Abraham Firkowicz.362 This book, which became the first collection of Karaite prayers translated into Russian, was used, instead of by the Karaites, mainly by the Subbotniki – Russian converts to the non-Talmudic, Karaite type of Judaism. Except for the Firkoviches, the attitude in official Karaite circles with regard to these “Russian Karaites” was rather ambivalent even negative. In 1917, however, the Karaite National Assembly in Eupatoria, headed by the reformer Seraja Szapszał, allowed marriages between the Russian Karaites Subbotniki and the ethnic Karaites. After this, there were a few cases of mixed marriages between the Karaites and Subbotniki for which Seraja fell from favour and was forced out of Crimea. Although they were racially non-Jews, many Subbotniki were executed by Turkic Nazis during WWII. The Subbotniki lived mostly in the Volga and Astrakhan’ regions, the northern Caucasus, and Crimea. Some still live there today.
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