Muhammad

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Muhammad (محمد Muḥammad; also Mohammed, Muhammed, Mohamet, and other variants)[1] is regarded by Muslims as the last messenger and prophet of God (Arabic: ألله Allah).[2] and considered to be the historical founder of the religion of Islam.

Biography

"Muhammad" in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman.[3]
A 16th-century Ottoman illustration depicting Muhammad at the Kaaba. Muhammad's face is veiled, a practice followed in the Islamic art since the 16th century.[3]

Sources on Muhammad’s life concur that he was born ca. 570 AD in the city of Mecca in Arabia,[4] was orphaned at a young age, was brought up by his uncle, worked mostly as a merchant, and was married by age 26. At some point, discontented with life in Mecca, he would retreat to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. According to Islamic tradition, it was here at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām)[5] is man's religion (dīn),[6] and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.[7][8][9]

He gained few followers early on, and was largely met with hostility from the tribes of Mecca.Muhammad was treated harshly and so were his followers. To escape persecution, Muhammad and his followers migrated to Yathrib (Medina)[10] in the year 622. This historic event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad managed to unite the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to ten thousand, conquered Mecca. In 632 AD, on returning to Medina from his 'Farewell pilgrimage', Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of Arabia had converted to Islam.

The revelations (or Ayats, lit. 'Signs of God'), which Muhammad had continued receiving till his death, form the verses of the Qur'an,[11] regarded by Muslims as the “word of God”, around which the religion is based. Besides the Qur'an, Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (hadith) are also upheld by Muslims, who consider him to be the “Perfect Man”, whose example (sunnah) is to be followed in all aspects of life.

Etymology

15th century illustration in a copy of a manuscript by Al-Bîrûnî, depicting Muhammad preaching the Qur'an in Mecca.[12]

The name Muhammad etymologically means "the praised one" in Arabic.[13] Within Islam, Muhammad is known as Nabi (Prophet) and Rasul (Messenger). Although the Qur'an sometimes declines to make a distinction among prophets, in verse Template:Quran-usc it singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets" (Template:Quran-usc).[14] The Qur'an also refers to Muhammad as "Ahmad" (Template:Quran-usc) (Arabic :أحمد), Arabic for "more praiseworthy".

Overview

Born to ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib, Muhammad initially adopted the occupation of a shepherd, and later became a merchant. In his youth, he was called by the nickname "Al-Amin" (Arabic: الامين ), a common Arab name meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator.[8][4] During the month of Ramadan, Muhammad would retreat to a cave located at the summit of Mount Hira, just outside Mecca in the Arabian Hijaz, where he fasted and prayed. When he was about forty (610 CE), Muhammad had a religious experience in this cave; according to Islamic belief, he was visited by the Archangel Gabriel and commanded to recite verses sent by God. These revelations continued until his death twenty-three years later. The collection of these verses is known as the Qur'an.

He expanded his mission as a prophet, publicly preaching strict monotheism, condemning against the social evils of his day, and warning of a Day of Judgment when all humans shall be held responsible for their deeds.[4]

After ignoring Muhammad's preaching, the elites in Mecca, feeling threatened by his message, harassed Muhammad, and persecuted his followers. This continued, and intensified, over more than a decade. The hardships reached a new level for Muhammad after the deaths of his wife Khadija and his uncle Abu Talib, who although not becoming a Muslim had protected Muhammad throughout. Eventually, in 622, Muhammad left Mecca in a journey known to Muslims as the Hijra (the Migration).[4] He settled in the area of Yathrib (now known as Medina) with his followers, where he was the leader of the first Muslim community.

Eight years of war between Muhammad and Meccan forces followed, ending with the Muslim victory and conquest of Mecca. The Muslims subsequently removed everything they considered idolatrous from the Kaaba. Most of the townspeople accepted Islam. In March 632, Muhammad led the pilgrimage known as the Hajj. On returning to Medina he fell ill and died after a few days, on June 8. [citation needed]

Under the caliphs who assumed authority after his death, the Islamic empire expanded into Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, North Africa, southern Spain, and Anatolia. Later conquests, commercial contact between Muslims and non-Muslims, and missionary activity spread Islam over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, including China and Southeast Asia.[citation needed]

Sources for Muhammad's life

11th century Persian Qur'an folio page in kufic script

From a scholarly point of view, the most credible source providing information on events in Muhammad's life is the Qur'an.[15][16] The Qur'an has some, though very few, casual allusions to Muhammad's life. [16] The Qur'an, however, responds "constantly and often candidly to Muhammad's changing historical circumstances and contains a wealth of hidden data that are relevant to the task of the quest for the historical Muhammad." [17] All, or most, of the Qur'an was apparently written down by Muhammad's secretaries while he was alive, but it was, then as now, primarily an orally related document, and the written compilation of the whole Qur'an in its definite form as we have it now was completed early after the death of Muhammad.[18] What we have today as the Qur'an is generally considered by academic scholars to record the words spoken by Muhammad because the search for variants in the western academia has not yielded any differences of great significance.[19]

Next in importance are the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him (the sira and hadith literature), which provide further information on Muhammad's life.[15] The earliest surviving written sira (Biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Sirah Rasul Allah ("Life of God's messenger"). Although the original work is lost, portions of it survive in the recensions of Ibn Hisham (Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, or "Life of the prophet") and Al-Tabari.[20] According to Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq wrote his biography some 120 to 130 years after Muhammad's death. Many, but not all, scholars accept the accuracy of these biographies, though their accuracy is unascertainable.[16] The hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical traditions of Muhammad, date from several generations after the death of Muhammad. Western academics view the hadith collections with caution as accurate historical sources.[21]

There are few non-Muslim sources which, according to S. A. Nigosian, all confirm the existence of Muhammad. The earliest of these sources date back after 634 CE and the most interesting of them date to some decades later. These sources are valuable for corroboration of the Qur'anic and Muslim tradition statements.[16]

Life based on Islamic traditions

Before Medina

Genealogy

Muhammad traced his genealogy as follows:

Muhammad was born into the Quraysh tribe. He is the son of Abd Allah, who is son of Abd al-Muttalib (Shaiba) son of Hashim (Amr) ibn Abd Manaf (al-Mughira) son of Qusai (Zaid) ibn Kilab ibn Murra son of Ka'b ibn Lu'ay son of Ghalib ibn Fahr (Quraish) son of Malik ibn an-Nadr (Qais) the son of Kinana son of Khuzaimah son of Mudrikah (Amir) son of Ilyas son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'ad ibn Adnan, whom the northern Arabs believed to be their common ancestor. Adnan in turn is said to have been a descendant of Ishmael, son of Abraham. (ibn means "son of" in Arabic; alternate names of people with two names are given in parentheses.)[22]

He was also called Abu-Qaasim (meaning "father of Qaasim") by some, after his short-lived first son.

Childhood

Muhammad was born into an affluent family settled in the northern Arabian town of Mecca. Tradition places it in the Year of the Elephant, commonly identified with 570. Some[citation needed] calculate his birthday as 20 April of that year, while Shi'a Muslims believe it to have been 26 April 570. Other sources calculate the year of his birth to have been 571. Muhammad's father, Abdullah, had died almost six months before he was born and the young boy was brought up by his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe. At the age of six, Muhammad lost his mother Amina and became fully orphaned. "Many years later, when he was exiled by his Meccan opponents, on his first pilgrimage from Medina to Mecca, he stopped at his mother's grave and cried bitterly, bringing tears to the eyes of his companions."[23] When he was eight years of age, his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, who had become his guardian, also died. Muhammad now came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe, the most powerful in Mecca.

Mecca was a thriving commercial center, due in great part to a shrine (now called the Kaaba) that housed statues of many Arabian gods. [citation needed] Merchants from various tribes would visit Mecca during the pilgrimage season, when all inter-tribal warfare was forbidden and they could trade in safety. While still in his teens, Muhammad began accompanying his uncle on trading journeys to Syria. He thus became well-travelled and knowledgeable about foreign ways.[citation needed]

Middle years

The earliest surviving image of Muhammad made in 1315 and showing Muhammad re-dedicating the Black Stone at the Kaaba. From Tabriz, Persia and can be found in Rashid al-Dins Jami' al-Tawarikh ("The Universal History" or "Compendium of Chronicles"), held in the University of Edinburgh.[24]

Muhammad became a merchant. He "was involved in trade between the Indian ocean and the Mediterranean Sea."[25] He gained a reputation for reliability and honesty that attracted a proposal from Khadijah, a forty-year-old widow in 595.[25] Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one.

Ibn Ishaq records that Khadijah bore Muhammad six children: three sons named Al Qasem, Abdullah (who is also called Al Tayeb and Al Taher) and Ibrahim, and four daughters. He was also called Abul Qasim (father of Qasim) after his eldest son Qasim, according to Arab customs. All of Khadija's children were born before Muhammad reported receiving his first revelation. His son Qasim died at the age of two. The four daughters are said to be Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatima.

The Beginnings of the Qur'an

The mountain of Hira where, according to Muslim tradition, Muhammad received his first revelation.

Muhammad often retreated to Mount Hira near Mecca. Islamic tradition holds that the angel Gabriel began communicating with him here in the year 610 and commanded Muhammad to recite the following verses:[26]

Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created- Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,- He Who taught (the use of) the pen,- Taught man that which he knew not.[27]

Upon receiving the first revelation, he was scared. When he returned home he related the event to his wife Khadijah. He was consoled and reassured by Khadijah and her Christian cousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal. Waraqah was immediately enthusiastic, but Khadijah proceeded more cautiously, and was only satisfied that the revelations had indeed come from a good source after the conclusion of a test she had devised to determine that very thing. This was followed by a pause of three years during which Muhammad had gave himself up further to prayers and spiritual practices. When the revelations resumed he was reassured and commanded to begin preaching.[28][29]

According to Welch, the revelations were accompanied by mysterious seizures.[8] Muhammad was confident that he could distinguish his own thoughts from these messages.[30]

Rejection

According to Muslim tradition, Khadijah and Waraqah, were the first to believe that Muhammad was a prophet. They were soon followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr and adopted son Zaid (later known as Zaid bin Haarith.)

Around 613, Muhammad began to preach amongst Meccans most of whom ignored it and a few mocked him, while some others became his followers. There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners.[31]

As the ranks of Muhammad's followers swelled, he became a threat to the local tribes and the rulers of the city, whose wealth rested upon the Kaaba, the focal point of Meccan religious life, which Muhammad threatened to overthrow. Muhammad’s denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba. The great merchants tried to come to some arrangements with Muhammad in exchange for abandoning his preaching. They offered him admission into the inner circle of merchants and establishing his position in the circle by an advantageous marriage.[32] Some of Muhammad's followers fled to the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum and founded a small colony there under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian king. (See Islam in Ethiopia).

Several suras and parts of suras are said to date from this time, and reflect its circumstances: see for example al-Masadd, al-Humaza, parts of Maryam and al-Anbiya, al-Kafirun, and Abasa.

In 619, the "year of sorrow", both Muhammad's wife Khadijah and his uncle Abu Talib died. The relationship between Muhammad's group of followers and Muhammad's own Quraysh clan, which were already bad, worsened still further.[33] The controversial Satanic verses incident, if it happened, happened at this time.[34]

Isra and Miraj

Main article: Isra and Mi'raj
A 16th century Persian miniature painting celebrating Muhammad's ascent into the Heavens, a journey known as the Miraj. Muhammad's face is veiled, a practice in Islamic art of this genre.

Some time in 620, Muhammad told his followers that he had experienced the Isra and Miraj, a miraculous journey said to have been accomplished in one night along with Angel Gabriel. In the first part of the journey, the Isra, he is said to have travelled from Mecca to "the farthest mosque" (in Arabic: masjid al-aqsa), which Muslims usually identify with the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. In the second part, the Miraj, Muhammad is said to have toured heaven and hell, and spoken with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Ibn Ishaq, author of first biography of Muhammad, presents this event as a spiritual experience while later historians like Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir present it as a physical journey.[35] Those Muslims subscribing to the latter view consider the place under the Dome of the Rock the site from which Muhammad ascended to heaven.

Timeline of Muhammad
Important dates and locations in the life of Muhammad
c569 Death of his father, `Abd Allah
c570 Possible date of birth, April 20: Mecca
570 Legendary unsuccessful Ethiopian attack on Mecca
576 Death of Mother
578 Death of Grandfather
c583 Takes trading journeys to Syria
c595 Meets and marries Khadijah
610 First reports of Qur'anic revelation
c610 Appears as Prophet of Islam
c613 Begins spreading message of Islam publicly
c614 Begins to gather following in Mecca
c615 Emigration of Muslims to Ethiopia
616 Banu Hashim clan boycott begins
c618 Medinan Civil War
619 Banu Hashim clan boycott ends
619 The year of sorrows: Khadijah and Abu Talib die
c620 Isra and Miraj
622 Emigrates to Medina (Hijra)
624 Battle of Badr: Muslims defeat Meccans
624 Expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa
625 Battle of Uhud: Meccans defeat Muslims
625 Expulsion of Banu Nadir
626 Attack on Dumat al-Jandal (Syria)
627 Battle of the Trench
627 Destruction of Banu Qurayza
627 Subjugation of Dumat al-Jandal
628 Treaty of Hudaybiyya
c628 Gains access to Meccan shrine Kaaba
628 Conquest of the Khaybar oasis
629 First hajj pilgrimage
629 Attack on Byzantine empire fails: Battle of Mu'tah
630 Attacks and bloodlessly captures Mecca
c630 Battle of Hunayn
c630 Siege of Taif
630 Conquest of Mecca
c631 Rules most of the Arabian peninsula
c632 Attacks the Ghassanids: Tabuk
632 Farewell hajj pilgrimage
632 Death (June 8): Medina

Hijra to Ethiopia

In 615 AD/CE, a band of Muslims were counseled by the Prophet Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Ethiopia, which was ruled by a Christian king. (see Islam in Ethiopia) In that year, his followers were fleeing from Mecca's leading tribe, the Quraish, who sent emissaries to bring them back to Arabia, but the King of Ethiopia protected Muhammad's followers. Since then, Muhammad himself instructed his followers who came to Ethiopia, to respect and protect Ethiopia as well as live in peace with Ethiopian Christians. Accordingly, some scholars state that Ethiopia was the country that saved Islam from its near destruction and termination.[citation needed]

Muhammad in Medina

Hijra to Medina

Main article: Migration to Medina
Main article: Muhammad in Medina

By 622, Muhammad then emigrated to Medina, then known as Yathrib, a large agricultural oasis where there were a number of Muslim converts. By breaking the link with his own tribe, Muhammad demonstrated that tribal and family loyalties were insignificant compared to the bonds of Islam, a revolutionary idea in the tribal society of Arabia. This Hijra or emigration (traditionally translated into English as "flight") marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. The Muslim calendar counts dates from the Hijra, which is why Muslim dates have the suffix AH (After Hijra).

Muhammad came to Medina as a mediator, invited to resolve the feud between the Arab factions of Aws and Khazraj. He ultimately did so by absorbing both factions into his Muslim community, forbidding bloodshed among Muslims. However, Medina was also home to a number of Jewish tribes, divided into three major clans: Banu Qainuqa, Banu Qurayza and Banu Nadir, and some minor groups.[36]

There was fighting in Yathrib for around a hundred years before 620. The Jewish tribes allied with other clans and were sometimes on opposing sides.[36] The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the great battle of Bu'ath in which all the clans were involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal conceptions of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless "there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases."[36] A delegation from Medina, consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina, invited Muhammad as a neutral outsider to Medina to serve as the chief arbitrator for the entire community.[36][37] Among the things Muhammad did in order to settle down the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was drafting a document known as the Constitution of Medina (date debated), "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca, which specified the rights and duties of all citizens and the relationship of the different communities in Medina (including that of the Muslim community to other communities specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book").[36][37]

Beginnings of conflict

Relations between Mecca and Medina rapidly worsened (see surat al-Baqara). Meccans confiscated all the property that the Muslims had left in Mecca.[citation needed] In Medina, Muhammad signed treaties of alliance and mutual help with neighboring tribes. Mecca declared its hostility and status of war with the Muslims.

In March of 624, Muhammad led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan. The Meccans successfully defended the caravan, but then decided to teach the Muslims a lesson and marched against Medina. It should be noted that Islamic scholars question narratives regarding looting the caravan on the basis of the Qur'anic version of the account.[38]Template:Lopsided On March 15, 624 near a place called Badr, the Meccans and the Muslims clashed. Though outnumbered more than three times (one thousand to three hundred - majority of Muslim historians put the exact total at 313) in the battle, the Muslims met with success, killing at least forty-five Meccans and taking seventy prisoners for ransom; only fourteen Muslims died.[39] This marked the real beginning of Muslim military battles.

To his followers, the victory in Badr appeared to be divine authentication of Muhammad's prophethood. Muhammad and his followers were now a dominant force in the oasis of Yathrib (Medina).

After Khadija's death, Muhammad married Aisha, the daughter of his friend Abu Bakr (who would later emerge as the first leader of the Muslims after Muhammad's death). In Medina, he married Hafsah, daughter of Umar (who would eventually become Abu Bakr's successor).

Muhammad's daughter Fatima married Ali, Muhammad's cousin. According to the Sunni, another daughter, Umm Kulthum, married Uthman. Each of these men, in later years, would emerge as successors to Muhammad and political leaders of the Muslims. Thus, all four caliphs were linked to Muhammad by marriage. Sunni Muslims regard these caliphs as the Rashidun, or Rightly Guided. (See Succession to Muhammad for more information on the controversy on the succession to the caliphate).[citation needed]

The conflict with Mecca

In 625 the Meccan leader Abu Sufyan marched on Medina with three thousand men. Urged on by younger Muslims fired up by the victory at Badr and against the advice of Abdallah ibn Ubayy to last out the attack inside the town, Muhammad led his force outside and fought the Battle of Uhud on March 23, that ended in a Muslim defeat (According to Watt however it was not a Muslim defeat from a military standpoint. The Meccans, thinking themselves of having Arabia under their control, had aimed to destroy Muslims completely. But they completely failed to achieve this aim. They killed 75 Muslims for the loss of 77 of their own in Badr.[40]) However, the Meccan did not occupy the town and withdrew to Mecca because they could not attack on Muhammad's position again for military loss, low morale and possibility of Muslim resistance in the town. There was also hope that Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy leading a group of Muslims in Medina could be won over by diplomacy.[41] In April 627, Abu Sufyan led another strong force against Medina, but couldn't overcome the defenders in the Battle of the Trench.

Following the Muslims' victory at the Battle of the Trench, the Muslims were able, through conversion and conquest, to extend their rule to many of the neighboring cities and tribes.[citation needed]

Muhammad and the Jewish tribes of Medina

Main article: Muhammad and the Jews

After his migration to Medina, Muhammad's attitude towards Christians and Jews changed. Norman Stillman states:

During this fateful time, fraught with tension after the Hidjra [migration to Medina], when Muḥammad encountered contradiction, ridicule and rejection from the Jewish scholars in Medina, he came to adopt a radically more negative view of the people of the Book who had received earlier scriptures. This attitude was already evolving in the third Meccan period as the Prophet became more aware of the antipathy between Jews and Christians and the disagreements and strife amongst members of the same religion. The Qur'an at this time claims that it will "relate [correctly] to the Children of Israel most of that about which they differ" ( XXVII, 76).

Jewish opposition "may well have been for political as well as religious reasons".[42]On religious grounds, the Jews were skeptical of the possibility of a non-Jewish prophet,[43] and also had concerns about possible incompatibilities between the Qur'an and their own scriptures.[43][44] The Qur'an's response regarding the possibility of a non-Jew being a prophet was that Abraham was not a Jew. The Qur'an also claimed that it was "restoring the pure monotheism of Abraham which had been corrupted in various, clearly specified, ways by Jews and Christians".[43] According to Peters, "The Jews also began secretly to connive with Muhammad's enemies in Mecca to overthrow him."[45]

After each major battle with the Medinans, Muhammad attacked one of the Jewish tribes (see Template:Quran-usc). After Badr and Uhud, the Banu Qainuqa and Banu Nadir, respectively, were expelled "with their families and possessions" from Medina. After the Battle of the Trench in 627, the Muslims accused the Jews of Banu Qurayza of conspiring with the Meccans, then wiped them out.[46]

Two types of explanations are given for Muhammad's treatment of the Jews of Medina: Theological and Political. The theological explanation given by some Arab historians and biographers is that:"the punishment of the Medina Jews, who were invited to convert and refused, perfectly exemplify the Quran's tales of what happened to those who rejected the prophets of old." Others offered a political explanation.[47] F.E. Peters, a western scholar of Islam, states that Muhammad's treatment of Jews of Medina was essentially political being prompted by what Muhammad read as treasonous and not some transgression of the law of God.[45] Peters adds that Muhammad was possibly emboldened by his military successes and also wanted to push his advantage. Economical motivations according to Peters also existed since the poorness of the Meccan migrants was a source of concern for Muhammad.[48] Peters argues that Muhammad's treatment of the Jews of Medina was "quite extraordinary", "matched by nothing in the Qur'an", and is "quite at odds with Muhammad's treatment of the Jews he encountered outside Medina."[45]

The truce of Hudaybiyya

Main article: Treaty of Hudaybiyya

Although Muhammad had already delivered verses (Template:Quran-usc-Template:Quran-usc) about the performing of Hajj, Muhammad and Muslims did not perform it due to the enmity of the Quraish. It was the month of Shawwal 6 A.H. when Muhammad saw in a vision that he was shaving his head after the Hajj.[49][50] Muhammad therefore decided to perform the Hajj in the following month. Hence around the 13th of March, 628 with 1400 Companions he went towards Mecca without the least intention of giving battle.[51] But the Quraish were determined to offer resistance to Muslims and they posted themselves outside Mecca, closing all access to the city.[51] In order to settle the dispute peacefully, Muhammad halted at a place called Hudaybiyya. Hence after series of talks a treaty was signed. The main points of treaty were the following:

  1. The two parties and their allies should desist from hostilities against each other[52][53]
  2. Muhammad, should not perform Hajj this year[52][54]
  3. They may come next year to perform Hajj (unarmed) but shall not stay in Mecca for more than three days[52][54]
  4. Any Muslim living in Mecca cannot settle in Medina, but Medinan Muslims may come and join Meccans (and will not be returned).[55]

Many Muslims were not satisfied with the terms of the treaty. However, the Qur'anic sura "Al-Fath" (The Victory) Template:Quran-usc-Template:Quran-usc assured the Muslims that the expedition from which they were now returning must be considered a victorious one.[56][57] The Muslims did benefit following the treaty; the men of Mecca and Medina could now meet in peace and discuss Islam. Hence, during the following two years the community of Islam more than doubled.[58][59][60]

Muhammad's letters to the Heads of State

According to Muslim tradition, after the signing of the truce, Muhammad sent letters to many rulers of the world, asking them to convert to Islam.[61][62][63] Hence he sent messengers (with letters) to Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire (the eastern Roman Empire), Chosroes of Persia, the chief of Yemen and to some others.[61][62]

Conquest of Mecca

The Kaaba in Mecca held a major economic and religious role for the area, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for Salat
Main article: Conquest of Mecca

The truce of Hudaybiyya had been enforced for two years.[64][65] The tribe of Khuz'aah had a friendly relationship with Muhammad, while on the other hand their enemies, the Banu Bakr, had an alliance with the Meccans.[64][66] A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuz'aah, killing a few of them.[64][66] The Meccans helped their allies (i.e., the Banu Bakr) with weapons and, according to some sources, a few Meccans also took part in the fighting.[64] After this event, Muhammad sent a message to Mecca with three conditions, asking them to accept one of them. These were the following[67]

  1. The Meccans were to pay blood-money for those slain among the Khuza'ah tribe, or
  2. They should have nothing to do with the Banu Bakr, or
  3. They should declare the truce of Hudaybiyya null.

The Meccans replied that they would accept only the third condition.[67] However, soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Safyan to renew the Hudaybiyya treaty, but now his request was declined by Muhammad. Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign.[68]

In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca with an enormous force, said to number more than ten thousand men. Most Meccans converted to Islam, and Muhammad subsequently destroyed all of the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba, without any exception. Henceforth the pilgrimage would be a Muslim pilgrimage and the shrine was converted to a Muslim shrine.[citation needed]

Unification of Arabia

The capitulation of Mecca and the defeat of an alliance of enemy tribes at Hunayn effectively brought the greater part of the Arabian peninsula under Muhammad's authority. However, this authority was not enforced by a regular government, as Muhammad chose instead to rule through personal relationships and tribal treaties. The Muslims were clearly the dominant force in Arabia, and most of the remaining tribes and states hastened to convert to Islam.[citation needed]

Death

The Al-Masjid al-Nabawi is Islam's second most sacred site; the Green dome in the background stands above Muhammad's tomb

In 632 Muhammad fell ill and suffered for several days with head pain and weakness. He succumbed on Monday, June 8, 632, in the city of Medina. He is buried in his tomb (what was his house) adjacent to Mosque of the Prophet in Medina.[citation needed]

Muhammad as a military leader

For most of his life, Muhammad was a merchant, then a religious leader. He took up the sword late in his life. He was an active military leader for ten years.

Template:Sect-stub

Family life

Main article: Muhammad's marriages

Template:Unreferenced

Muhammad's life is traditionally defined into two epochs: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca, a city in northern Arabia, from the year 570 to 622 , and post-hijra in Medina, from 622 until his death in 632. All but two of his marriages were contracted after the migration to Medina.

He married 11 or 13 women depending upon the differing accounts of who his wives were. At the age of 25, Muhammad married Khadijah which lasted for 25 years.[69] This marriage is described as "long" and "happy," and he relied upon Khadija in many ways.[70][71] After her death, friends of Muhammad advised him to marry again, but he was reluctant to do so.[71][72] It was suggested to Muhammad by Khawla bint Hakim, that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim widow, or Aisha. Muhammad is said to have asked her to arrange for him to marry both. Later, Muhammad married additional wives, to make for a total of eleven, of whom nine or ten survived him. Scholars such as Esposito and Watt hold that most of the marriages had political or social motives.[73][74]

The status of several of Muhammad's wives is disputed by scholars. Maria al-Qibtiyya may have been a slave, a freed slave, or a wife.[citation needed] While there is some debate about the age of Aisha (Ayesha), most references, including the Bukhari Hadith, put the marriage age at 5 or 6 and consummation of the marriage at the age of 9.[75][76][77]

Muhammad had children by only two wives. Khadijah is said to have borne him four daughters and a son; only one daughter, Fatima and her children survived her father, see Shia. Some say that his daughter Zainab, mother to a daughter called Amma or Umama, survived him as well.[citation needed] Shi'a Muslims dispute the number of Muhammad's children, stating that he had only one daughter, and that the other "daughters" were step-daughters. Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son, but the child died when he was ten months old.

Descendants of Muhammad are known as sharifs شريف (plural: ِأشراف Ashraaf) or sayyid. Many rulers and notables in Muslim countries, past and present have professed such descent, with various degrees of credibility, such as the Fatimid dynasty of North Africa, the Idrisids, the current royal families of Jordan. In various Muslim countries, there are societies of varying credibility that authenticate claims of descent.[citation needed]

There is some dispute between Shia scholars regarding the genealogy of the four daughters of Khadija on whether they were born to Khadijah from her marriage to Muhammad, an earlier marriage, or if they were in fact the daughters of a widowed and dead sister of Khadija. Sunni's believe he had four daughters with Khadîjah. Shi'a accept Fatimah to be Muhammad's only surviving child,[citation needed] while some Sunni question that.[citation needed]

There is also a difference of opinion regarding whether he had two or four sons. The conflict arises from some reports on the sons of Khadijah mentioning two sons called Tahir and Tayyab,[citation needed] and another mentioning one called Abdullah who was also called Tahir and possibly also called Tayyab.[citation needed] Ibrâhîm was the only child borne to him by Maria during his residence in Medina and the last to be born. Abdullâh was born after he declared himself a prophet but died during his residence in Mecca. All his other sons died before his claims of prophecy.

In the Islamic prayer, Muslims end with the second tashahhud asking God to bless Muhammad and his descendants just as Abraham and his descendants were blessed.

Children of Khadijah:

Sons:

Daughters:

Children of Maria:

Companions

Main article: Sahaba

The term Sahaba (companion) refers to anyone who meets three criteria: to be a contemporary of Muhammad, to have heard Muhammad speak on at least one occasion, and to be a convert to Islam. Companions are considered the ultimate sources for the oral traditions, or hadith, on which much of Muslim law and practice are based. The following are a few examples in alphabetic order: Template:Col-begin Template:Col-break

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Muhammad the reformer

According to William Montgomery Watt, for Muhammad, religion was not a private and individual matter but rather “the total response of his personality to the total situation in which he found himself. He was responding [not only]... to the religious and intellectual aspects of the situation but also to the economic, social, and political pressures to which contemporary Mecca was subject." [78]

Bernard Lewis says that there are two important political traditions in Islam - one that views Muhammad as a statesman in Medina, and another that views him as a rebel in Mecca. He sees Islam itself as a type of revolution that greatly changed the societies into which the new religion was brought.[79]

Historians generally agree that Islamic social reforms in areas such as social security, family structure, slavery and the rights of women and children improved on what was present in existing Arab society.[79][80][81][82][83] For example, according to Lewis, Islam "from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents"[79]

Muhammad's message transformed the society and moral order of life in the Arabian Peninsula through reorientation of society as regards to identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values.[84]

Economic reforms addressed the plight of the poor, which was becoming an issue in pre-Islamic Mecca.[85] The Qur'an requires payment of an alms tax (zakat) for the benefit of the poor,[86] and as Muhammad's position grew in power he demanded that those tribes who wanted to ally with him implement the zakat in particular.[87]

Miracles in the Muslim biographies

The Dome of the Rock, built atop the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, marks the spot from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to Paradise.

The pre-modern Muslim biographies of Muhammad envisions Muhammad as a cosmic figure, invested with superhuman qualities. Modern Muslim biographies of Muhammad however portray him as a progressive social reformer, a political leader and a model of human virtue.[88] The view of these modern biographies is that Muhammad's real miracle, as Daniel Brown states modern historians would probably agree, 'was not a moon split or a sighing palm tree, but the transformation of the Arabs from marauding bands of nomads into world conquerors.'[88]

Carl Ernst believes that this main shift away from presenting a miraculous view of Muhammad has been a response to the stridently negative depictions of Muhammad created by European authors.[89] Daniel Brown adds two more reasons: First, Muslims in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were faced with social and political turmoil. The desire for the restoration of the Muslim community encouraged them to view Muhammad as a model for social and political reform. And lastly, 'the ongoing challenge of reforming or reviving Islamic law perpetuated concern for the life of Muhammad as a normative model for human behavior.'[88] Ernst states that this main shift reflects the growth of bourgeois scientific rationalism in Muslim countries.[14]

Traditional views of Muhammad

Seal of the prophets

Wazir Khan Mosque (16th century) Fresco painting with floral designs surrounding the words "Allah" and "Muhammad" in blue. Inscribed inside the names are Qur'anic verses; the one inside the word "Allah" is the Ayat-ul-Kursi and the one inscribed inside the word "Muhammad" asserts that Muhammad is the last prophet.
Topkapi Palace gate with Shahadah and his seal. The Muslim Profession of faith, the Shahada, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad - "There is No God (ʾilāh)[90] but God(Allāh), and Muhammad is His Messenger."

Muslims believe Muhammad to be the last in a line of prophets of God (Arabic Allah) and regard his mission as one of restoring the original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and other prophets of Islam that had become altered by man over time.[7][8][9] The Qur'an specifically refers to Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets", which is taken by most Muslims to believe him to be the last of the prophets.[91][14] Scholars such as Welch however hold that this Muslim belief is most likely a later interpretation of the Seal of the Prophets.[8] Carl Ernst considers this phrase to mean that Muhammad's "imprint on history is as final as a wax seal on a letter".[14] Wilferd Madelung states that the meaning of this term is not certain.[92]

Other traditions

  • Islamic tradition narrates miracles of Muhammad as an infant while in the care of a Bedouin wet nurse - Halima Sadia.
  • After he returned to Mecca, he is said to have been loved by all around him as he was a polite and honest child.
  • As a youth, he was called upon to solve a vexing political problem for his Meccan neighbors. While rebuilding the Kaaba, the tribes disputed over the clan that should have the honor of raising the Black Stone into place. Muhammad suggested that the heads of each clan raise the Black Stone on a cloth, so that all had the honor of lifting it. Muhammad then put the stone into its place.
  • As a young man and a merchant, Muslim tradition reports that Muhammad was known to be trustworthy and honest. The other Meccans called him al-Amin(Arabic for "the trustworthy one").[93] After he proclaimed his prophethood, however, his neighbors turned against him.

Depictions of Muhammad

Muslims differ as to whether or not visual depictions of Muhammad are permissible. The position of the four main Sunni Muslim Maddhabs is that, to prevent idolatry and shirk, visual depictions of Muhammad are forbidden; some non-maddhab groups, such as the Salafi movement, take a similar line.[94]

The Shia and others have historically taken a much less restrictive view, allowing depictions praising Muhammad, while a school of Sufi'ism uses calligraphy of the name of Muhammad, Ali, Hussein and other important people in Muslim History to create their images.[95]

Muslim veneration of Muhammad

Template:See also

Muhammad's name, engraved in gold, adorns the walls of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Originally a Christian church, it was converted into a mosque after the Fall of Constantinople.

It is traditional for Muslims to illustrate and express love and veneration for Muhammad. This is observed in a number of different ways. When Muslims say or write Muhammad's name, they usually follow it with Peace be upon him or its Arabic equivalent, sallalahu alayhi wasallam, and for Shias this is extended to Peace be upon him and his descendants. In English this is often abbreviated to "(pbuh)", "(saw)" and "pbuh&hd" for Shias, or even just simply as "p". The Quran gave him the title Apostle of God (Arabic: Rasul-Allah or Rasulallah), which has also been used by Muslims, as well as the title "Prophet". Concerts of Muslim, and especially Sufi, devotional music include songs praising Muhammad. There are religious songs Nasheeds which regularly praise Muhammad.

Conversely, criticism of Muhammad is often equated with blasphemy, which is punishable by death in Pakistan.[96]

Christian and Western views of Muhammad

While Muslim tradition tended to glorify Muhammad, Western tradition has at times denigrated and vilified him.[97][98]

Popular image of Muhammad in Medieval times

The popular early medieval literature does not reflect the knowledge of Muhammad's life as known in Latin theological texts. The first mentions of Muhammad are found in a 12th century work which describes Muhammad as "an idol, whose image the Saracen warriors take with them into battle; after a defeat they throw it among the dogs and pigs or into the river or also trample on it. Like Christ or God the Father with the Christians, he is implored for help by the Saracens, but is shown as being ineffective."[8] A verbal expression of Christian contempt for Islam was expressed in turning his name from Muhammad to Mahound, the "devil incarnate".[99] Bernard Lewis states that "The development of the concept of Mahound started with considering Muhammad as a kind of demon or false god worshipped with Apollyon and Termangant in an unholy trinity."[100] Representation of Muhammad as an idol or one of the heathen gods remains during the first and second Crusade where it was used to discredit Islam in the eyes of Christians. [8] Although, Muslims likewise reproached Christians of being polytheists because of the dogma of the Trinity, but it is unlikely that Christian's representing Muhammad as an idol was a conscious retort to such criticisms.[8]

Romantic representations of Muhammad

At the middle of the 13th century, the romantic representations of Muhammad appear. A poem dating back to that time represents Muhammad as "someone in bondage. Through his cleverly contrived marriage to the widow of his former master, he not only attains his freedom and wealth but also knows how to cover up his epileptic attacks as phenomena accompanying visitations of angels and to pose as a new messenger of God's will through deceitful machinations." Around that time, one can find Scala Mahomete, a translation from an Arabic source and free from Christian evaluations (apart from one sentence in the foreword). More committed to Christian polemics, Livre dou Tresor represents Muhammad as a former monk and cardinal. Dante's Divine Commedia, puts Muhammad, together with Ali, "among the sowers of discord and the schismatics, being lacerated by devils again and again." [8]

Early Modern times

In the early modern times, the popular literature admits the fabulous characteristics and degrading judgements of the Christian theologians.[8] Muhammad was no longer viewed as a god or idol but after a reformation, he was conceived as "a cunning and self-seeking impostor", "a destroyer who is driven by ambition and avidity" [101] [8] While numerous new initiatives for a more positive view happen, but until more recent times, the discrediting representation of Muhammad continues. For example Friedrich Bodenstedt(1851) describes Muhammad "as an ominous destroyer and a prophet of murder"[8]

Guillaume Postel was among the first who paved the way for a somewhat less biassed view of Muhammad. Boulainvilliers described Muhammad "as a man of genius, a great lawgiver, a conqueror and monarch, whose doctrine is characterised by justice and tolerance." Leibniz, too, provided a positive image of Muhammad because "he did not deviate from the natural religion".[8]

Modern times

Bernard Lewis states:

The modern historian will not readily believe that so great and significant a movement was started by a self-seeking impostor. Nor will he be satisfied with a purely supernatural explanation, whether it postulates aid of divine of diabolical origin; rather, like Gibbon, will he seek 'with becoming submission, to ask not indeed what were the first, but what were the secondary causes of the rapid growth' of the new faith

According to William Montgomery Watt, since Medieval times, "much has been achieved, especially during the last two centuries, but many of the old prejudices linge on."[102]

Other religious traditions in regard to Muhammad

  • The Druze, who accept most but not all Qur'anic revelations, also consider him a prophet.
  • Bahá'ís venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God", but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of Bahá'u'lláh.

See also

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Notes

  1. Welch, noting the frequency of Muhammad being called as "Al-Amin"(Arabic: الامين ), a common Arab name, suggests the possibility of "Al-Amin" being Muhammad's given name as it is a masculine form from the same root as his mother's name, A'mina. cf. "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online; The sources frequently say that he, in his youth, was called with the nickname "Al-Amin" meaning "Honest, Truthful" cf. Ernst (2004), p.85.
  2. The Cambridge History of Islam (1977) writes that "It is appropriate to use the word 'God' rather than the transliteration 'Allah'. For one thing it cannot be denied that Islam is an offshoot of the Judaeo-Christians tradition, and for another the Christian Arabs of today have no other word for 'God' than 'Allah'." cf p.32.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23-28, 1999, p. 7 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Ali7" defined multiple times with different content
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Encyclopedia of World History (1998), p.452
  5. The word "islām" derives from the triconsonantal Arabic root sīn-lām-mīm, which carries the basic meaning of safety and peace. The verbal noun "islām" is formed from the verb aslama, a derivation of this root which means to accept, surrender, or submit; thus, 'Islam' effectively means submission to and acceptance of God. See: Islam#Etymology and meaning
  6. 'Islam' is always referred to in the Qur'an as a 'dīn', a word that means 'way' or 'path' in Arabic, but is usually translated in English as 'religion' for the sake of convenience
  7. 7.0 7.1 Esposito (1998), p.12; (1999) p.25; (2002) pp.4-5 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "EspositoI" defined multiple times with different content
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 "Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam Online Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "EoI-Muhammad" defined multiple times with different content
  9. 9.0 9.1 Peters (2003), p.9
  10. After Muhhammad's migration to Yathrib, the city came to be known as Madina al-Nabi, lit. 'City of the Prophet'; hence, the name Medina
  11. The term Qur'an was first used in the Qur'an itself. There are two different theories about this term and its formation that are discussed in Quran#Etymology cf. "Qur'an", Encyclopedia of Islam Online.
  12. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  13. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Ernst (2004), p.80
  15. 15.0 15.1 Reeves (2003), p.6-7
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Islam, S. A. Nigosian, p.6 , Indiana University Press
  17. Encyclopedia of Islam, Muhammad
  18. The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.32
  19. F. E. Peters, The Quest for Historical Muhammad, International Journal of Middle East Studies (1991) p.291-315
  20. Donner (1998), p.132
  21. Lewis (1993), pp.33-34
  22. Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum: The Lineage and Family of Muhammad by Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
  23. Reeves (2003), p.11
  24. Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23-28, 1999, p. 3
  25. 25.0 25.1 Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2005), v.3, p.1025
  26. Brown (2003), pp.72-73
  27. Template:Quran-usc-Template:Quran-usc
  28. Brown (2003), pp.73-74
  29. Template:Quran-usc-Template:Quran-usc
  30. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Cambridge31
  31. The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.36
  32. The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.36
  33. Hourani (2003), p.17
  34. Some early Islamic histories recount that as Muhammad was reciting Sūra Al-Najm (Q.53), as revealed to him by the angel Gabriel, Satan tempted him to utter the following lines after verses 19 and 20 :"Have you thought of Allāt and al-'Uzzā and Manāt the third, the other; These are the exalted Gharaniq, whose intercession is hoped for. (Allāt, al-'Uzzā and Manāt were three goddesses worshiped by the Meccans). These histories then say that these 'Satanic Verses' were shortly afterward repudiated by Muhammad at the behest of the angel Gabriel. cf Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume p.166. Academic scholars such as William Montgomery Watt and Guillaume argued for its authenticity while scholars such as Caetani and Burton rejected the tradition.
  35. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003), p.482
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 39
  37. 37.0 37.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Esp
  38. They argue that these narratives contradict the Qur'anic version of the account, asserting that the caravan was one of the two targets which "weak believers" wanted to attack (Template:Quran-usc-range), but that the Muslims actually fought against Meccan army, as looting a defenceless caravan wouldn't require preparations which the Qur'an talks about (Template:Quran-usc). See, e.g., Tariq Hashmi. Cause of Battle of Badr, Al-Mawrid; Amin Ahsan Islahi. Tadabbur-i-Qur'an, Ist Ed., (Lahore: Faraan Foundation 2003), pp. 427-40; Shibli Nomani. Siratu al-Nabi, Ist Ed. vol. 2, (Lahore: Qazi Publishers 1981) pp. 49-52; Khalid Masud, Hayaat-e Rasul-e Ummi, 1st ed. (Lahore: Dar al-Tazkeer 2003), pp.319-25
  39. Glubb (2002), pp.179-186.
  40. Watt (1974) p.140
  41. Watt (1974) p.141
  42. Endress (2003), p.29
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), pp.43-44
  44. Cohen (1995), p.23
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 F.E.Peters(2003), p.194
  46. Esposito (1998), pp.10-11
  47. F.E.Peters(2003), p.77
  48. F.E.Peters(2003), p.76-78
  49. Khan (1998), p.242
  50. Lings (1987), p.249
  51. 51.0 51.1 Khan (1998), p.243
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 Lings (1987), p.253
  53. Haykal (1995), p.353
  54. 54.0 54.1 Khan (1998), p.245
  55. Khan (1998), p.246
  56. Lings (1987), p.255
  57. Khan (1998), p.247
  58. Lings (1987), p.259
  59. Khan (1998), p.248
  60. Haykal (1995), p.356
  61. 61.0 61.1 Lings (1987), p. 260
  62. 62.0 62.1 Khan (1998), pp.250-251
  63. Haykal (1995), p. 360
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 64.3 Khan (1998), p.274
  65. Lings (1987), p.291
  66. 66.0 66.1 Lings (1987), p.291
  67. 67.0 67.1 Khan (1998), pp.274-275
  68. Lings (1987), p.292
  69. Esposito (1998), p.18
  70. Bullough (1998), p.119
  71. 71.0 71.1 Reeves (2003), p.46
  72. Bullough (1998), p.119
  73. "Aisha", Encyclopedia of Islam Online: Watt writes: "Muhammad had a political aim in nearly all his marriages"; for example his marriage to Aisha, "must have seen in this one a means of strengthening the ties between himself and Abu Bakr, his chief follower."
  74. Esposito (1998), p.16
  75. Sahih Muslim, Book 8, Number 3310
  76. Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 62, Number 64
  77. Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 62, Number 88
  78. Cambridge History of Islam (1970), p.30
  79. 79.0 79.1 79.2 Template:Cite news
  80. Watt (1974), p.234
  81. Robinson (2004) p.21
  82. Esposito (1998), p. 98
  83. "Ak̲h̲lāḳ", Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
  84. Islamic ethics, Encyclopedia of Ethics
  85. The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.34
  86. Esposito (1998), p.30
  87. The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p.52
  88. 88.0 88.1 88.2 Brown (1999), p.65
  89. Ernst (2004), p.84
  90. Ilah is also translated as Deity, and means God in the sense of where there can be more than one, in plural, like the Roman Gods, Allah, on the other hand, can be translated as 'The God', and can only mean God where there is one, alone
  91. For further information on the meaning of the term, See Friedmann, 'Finality of Prophethood'; G.G. Stroumsa, 'Seal of the prophets: The Nature of a Manichaen Metaphor', JSAI, 7 (1986), 61-74; C.Colpe, 'Das Siegel der Propheten', Orientalia Suecana, 33-5 (1984-6), 71-83, revised version in C.Colpe, Das Siegel der Propheten, (Berlin, 1990), 227-43
  92. Madelung (2004), p.17
  93. USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts: About the Prophet Muhammad
  94. BBC News: Q&A: Depicting the Prophet Muhammad. BBC News
  95. Associated Press: Islam Forbids Visual Depiction of Muhammad
  96. See, e.g., Pakistani Penal Code, Act III of 1986, s 295-C and 298-C.
  97. Esposito (1998), p.14 "
  98. Watt (1974), p.231.
  99. Reeves (2003), p.3
  100. Lewis (2002) p.45
  101. Lewis (2002) p.45
  102. Watt (1974) p.231.

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Encyclopedias

Further reading

  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], Mohammed: The Man and His Faith Andrae, Tor, Mohammed: The Man and His Faith, Dover, Dover, 2000, ISBN 0-486-41136-2.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet Armstrong, Karen, Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, Harper, Harper, 1993, ISBN 0-06-250886-5.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins Berg, Herbert, ed., Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins, E. J. Brill, E. J. Brill, 2003, ISBN 90-04-12602-3.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], Muhammad Cook, Michael, Muhammad, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, 1983, ISBN 0-19-287605-8 (reissue 1996).
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], Twenty-Three Years: A Study of the Prophetic Career of Mohammad Dashti, Ali, Twenty-Three Years: A Study of the Prophetic Career of Mohammad, Mazda, Mazda, 1994, ISBN 1-56859-029-6.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], The Life and Work of the Prophet of Islam Hamidullah, Muhammad, The Life and Work of the Prophet of Islam, [s.n.](Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute), [s.n.](Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute), 1998, ISBN 969-8413-00-6.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], The Biography of Muhammad: The Issue of the Sources (Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, Vol. 32) Motzki, Harald, ed., The Biography of Muhammad: The Issue of the Sources (Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, Vol. 32), Brill, Brill, 2000, ISBN 90-04-11513-7.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], Muhammad Rodinson, Maxime, Muhammad, New Publishers, New Publishers, 1961, ISBN 1-56584-752-0.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], Muhammad: Prophet of Islam Rodinson, Maxime, Muhammad: Prophet of Islam, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2002, ISBN 1-86064-827-4.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], The Eye of the Beholder: The Life of Muhammad as Viewed by the Early Muslims (A Textual Analysis) Rubin, Uri, The Eye of the Beholder: The Life of Muhammad as Viewed by the Early Muslims (A Textual Analysis), Darwin Press, Darwin Press, 1995, ISBN 0-87850-110-X.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], And Muhammad is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety Schimmel, Annemarie, And Muhammad is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety, The University of North Carolina Press, The University of North Carolina Press, 1985, ISBN 0-8078-4128-5.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], The Jews of Arab Lands: a History and Source Book Stillman, Norman, The Jews of Arab Lands: a History and Source Book, Jewish Publication Society of America, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1975, ISBN 0-8276-0198-0.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], The Quest for the Historical Muhammad Warraq, Ibn, The Quest for the Historical Muhammad, Prometheus Books, Prometheus Books, 2000, ISBN 1-57392-787-2.
  • [[{{{authorlink}}}|{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}]], Prophet of Doom Winn, Craig, Prophet of Doom, CricketSong Books, CricketSong Books, 2004, ISBN 978-0971448124.

External links

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Non-sectarian biographies
Muslim biographies